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A term may appear more than once if it was entered by more than one instructor. This glossary contains terms used in courses in the College of Veterinary Medicine. Some of the definitions are unique to a course. This is NOT meant to be an all inclusive dictionary.

Animal Legal Defense Fund
A group of private attorneys who have joined together who all have the common goal of promoting the welfare and right of animals.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

breeding records
Computerized or paper records that document the aspects of the reproductive life of an animal.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

5 alpha-reductase
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to to dihydrotestosterone.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

AAEP
American Association of Equine Practitioners   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

AAEZV
American Association of Exotic and Zoo Veterinarians   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

AAFP
American Association of Feline Practitioners   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

AAHA
American Animal Hospital Association   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

ABC
The traditional order of performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation: establish an airway, breath for the patient and provide chest compressions for circulation.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

ABDF
Animal Disease Biotechnology Facility   (Modified: 12/28/1999)

abdomen
The belly.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

abdominocentesis
Placing a needle into the abdominal (belly) cavity to check for the presence of abnormal fluid.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

abortion
Premature delivery of a dead fetus.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

abrasion
Superficial loss of the epidermis   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

abrasions
Wounds that are not through all the layers of the skin.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

abscess
An accumulation of pus.   (Modified: 10/14/1999)

acantholysis
Seperation of the intracellular bridges in the epidermis. Acantholysis is the characteristic histologic lesion of pemphigus leading to formation of clefts within the epidermis   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

acanthosis nigricans
Thickened, lichenified, seborrheic and greasy lesions which begin as small brown patches in the axilla and progresses to involve the hindlegs, chest and flanks. Most frequently seen in Dachshunds, also in Setters, Lhaso apsos, and others.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

acariasis
Infestation with mites.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

accidental host
Humans are not part of the life cycle, they accidentally entered into that organisms life cycle and got the disease. Examples: ringworm, rabies.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

acetretin
a Retinoids which is a synthetic derivatives of vitamin A.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

acid detergent fiberAbrev: ADF
The amount of residue (primarily cellulose, lignin and variable amounts of silica) left after boiling a feed sample in an acid detergent solution. The ADF value is used to predict the energy content (TDN, NE) of forages.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

acne, feline
Lesions seen most often on the chin. Acne may be a manifestation of a keratinization disorder, a primary bacterial infection, dermatophytosis, secondary to allergic skin disease, demodicosis, Malassezia dermatitis, or secondary to systemic disorders.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

acquired
A defect that happens after being born (contrasted to congenital).   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

acral lick dermatitis
Acral pruritic nodules - "Lick granuloma". Lesions caused by chronic licking.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

acronym
Abbreviation for a phrase. MPL is the acronym for master problem list.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

actinic
The injurious effects of ultraviolet light.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

activated partial thromboplastin time Abrev: APPT
The time it takes for plasma to form a fibrin clot after the addition of calcium and a phospholipid reagent. APPT measures the intrinsic coagulation system.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

acute
Single or short term exposure to a poison. Usually results in clinical signs and/or death.     (Modified: 10/21/1999)

acute
The sudden onset of signs of disease.   (Modified: 10/14/1999)

acute renal failure Abrev: ARF
An acute suppression of renal function. The most common causes of ARF are renal ischemia and nephrotoxicity.   (Modified: 10/14/1999)

acute renal failureAbrev: ARF
An acute suppression of renal function. The most common causes of ARF are renal ischemia and nephrotoxicity.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

acute tubular necrosisAbrev: ATN
Acute death of the epithelial cells lining the renal tubules due to ischemia or toxins.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

ACVIM
American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

ACVS
American College of Veterinary Surgeons   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

ad libitum Abrev: ad lib
Feed offered free-choice, allowing animals to eat as much as they desire.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

Addison’s disease
Inadequate production of hormones produced by the adrenal glands. Also known as hypoadrenocorticism.   (Modified: 10/12/1999)

adenocarcinoma
A form of cancer that occurs in the prostate gland.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

adhesions
When structures that are not normally bound together become stuck to one another.   (Modified: 10/27/2000)

adhesions
Two surfaces that are stuck together.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

adjuvant
A component added to killed vaccines to increase the ability of the vaccine to stimulate an immune response.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

adjuvant
A component added to killed vaccines to increase the ability of the vaccine to stimulate an immune response.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

adjuvants
Aluminum derivatives that are added to killed vaccines to generate more of an immune response than the killed vaccine alone would.   (Modified: 10/19/1999)

adnexa
Structures bound to the skin such as sebaceous and apocrine glands.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

adrenal gland
A gland located close to the kidneys that produces several hormones including cortisol.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

adrenaline
Also known as epinephrine. A hormone that stimulates the heart and increases blood pressure.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

adrenergic
Drugs that mimic the action of the sympathetic nervous system.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

adrenergic
Drugs that mimic the action of the sympathetic nervous system.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

adverse event
Any undesirable occurrence, either injury or death, following the use of an immunobiological product   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

adverse reaction to food
An abnormal clinical response attributed to an ingested food or food product.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

aerobic bacteria
Bacteria that grow only when oxygen is present.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

age specific data base
The minimum amount of information that is planned to be collected on all patients of a certain age; for example pediatric or geriatric databases.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

agglutination
An abnormal clumping of red blood cells. Often seen in patients with immune-mediated anemia.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

agonist
A drug which when attached to a receptor causes an effect.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

agonist
A drug which when attached to a receptor causes an effect.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

AIDS defining diseases
If a person is HIV+ and is diagnoses with one of several disease conditions, by definition the person has AIDS. Included among the AIDS defining diseases are several zoonotic diseases (toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis).   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

alanine aminotransferaseAbrev: ALT (SALT)
Also known as serum alanine aminotransferase (SALT). An enzyme found in hepatocytes (liver cells) released with cellular injury including cellular hypoxia.   (Modified: 9/16/2003)

albumin
A small protein in blood that acts like a “sponge” to keep fluid within the blood vessels. If albumin is low, fluid leaks out of the blood vessels and causes edema.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

aldosterone
A hormone produced by the adrenal gland that is responsible for salt and water balance in the body.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

alimentary
Another term for the gut or intestinal tract. The alimentary tract runs from the mouth, through the esophagus to the stomach, duodenum, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

alkaline phosphataseAbrev: AP SAP
Also known as serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP). An enzyme found in many tissues but most often elevated in serum in response to cholestasis, bone remodeling or glucocorticoid excess.   (Modified: 9/16/2003)

all in, all out management system
A management system where the entire population is removed from a single area, the area is thoroughly cleaned and disinfected, and then the pigs are moved back in.   (Modified: 11/10/1999)

allergic contact dermatitis Abrev: ACD
Dermatitis caused by caustic or irritating substances. No prior sensitization is required.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

allodynia
Pain from a stimulus that would normally be non-painful.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

alopecia
Loss of hair.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

alopecia
Loss of hair.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

aluminum hydroxide
An adjuvant which is a common component of killed vaccines, included to increase the ability of the vaccine to stimulate an immune response.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

aluminum hydroxide
An adjuvant which is a common component of killed vaccines, included to increase the ability of the vaccine to stimulate an immune response.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

alveolus
Microscopic sac-like structures within the lung. The airways terminate in these sac-like structures. When blood in the lung contacts the alveoli, the blood takes up oxygen and empties waste gases that will be removed during breathing.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

American Animal Hospital Association Abrev: AAHA
An international association of over 17,000 veterinary care providers who treat companion animals. The association was established in 1933. Over 2,800 veterinary hospitals voluntarily participate in the AAHA hospital evaluation program.   (Modified: 10/19/2000)

amino acids
Nitrogen-containing compounds that are the building blocks from which protein are made.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

amiodarone
A class III antiarrhythmic drug.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

amitraz
Mitaban® (Pharmacia). A treatment for demodectic mange. Mechanism of action is unknown, probably a monamine oxidase inhibitor.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

amlodipine
A long-acting calcium channel blocker that is the drug of choice for management of hypertension in cats.   (Modified: 5/23/2000)

amnion
The inner most layer of the membrane surrounding the embryo in the uterus. The sac formed by this membrane contains amniotic fluid.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

amniotic vesicle
Another name for the embryonic vesicle.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

amphotericin B
Systemic antifungal drug.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

amylase
An enzyme produced by the pancreas that contributes to digestion of food. Lack of amylase results in a large amount of greasy stool being passed.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

amylopectin
A branched chain of glucose molecules.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

anaerobic bacteria
A bacteria that grows only when oxygen is not present.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

anagen
The phase of the hair cycle during with the hair is synthesized.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

analgesia
Refers to the absence of pain in the presence of stimuli that would be expected to be painful. In clinical practice we use the term analgesia to mean a reduction in pain   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

analgesic
A drug administered to reduce the perception of pain.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

analgesic
A drug given to reduce pain.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

anamnestic response
The body's more rapid hummoral immunity response when it is infected with a pathogen it has encounted before.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

anamnestic response
The memory of immune cells which allows for more rapid and intense production of antibodt the second time a host animal sees an antgen. Also called a secondary immune response.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

anaphylaxis
A severe hypersensitivity reaction often resulting in bronchoconstriction and hypotension.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

anaphylaxis
A severe hypersensitivity reaction often resulting in bronchoconstriction and hypotension.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

ancylostomiasis
Hookworm dermatitis.The etiological agents are migrating 3rd stage larvae of Ancylostoma canium or Uncinaria stenocephala.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

anemia
Anemia is a decrease in PCV or hemoglobin resulting in decreased oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

anemia
A low red blood cell count.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

anesthesia
Loss of sensation induced by a drug. This can be loss of sensation in a body part which is called local anesthesia or loss of consciousness with general anesthesia.   (Modified: 12/22/1999)

animal reservoir
An animal with an inapparent infection that is also transmitting the agent.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

animal rights
A ideology defined by the belief that in addition to meeting the basic needs of an animal, taking into account their species specific behaviors and some other criteria, society has a moral obligation to make sure that those animals are appropriately cared for and handled.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

Animal Welfare Information Center
A federally funded group that was originally set up with the Health Research Information Act (1985) and part of that was to mandate the Animal Welfare Information Center place to go and look for alternatives to the use of animals in research. All of the Animal Welfare Information Center documents are public access and can be accessed on the web.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

animal well being
A state in which the animal is existing with in a range of acceptable environmental and psychological specifications.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

animals rights
A belief in the total elimination of use of animals in our society, period. Human life is equated to animal life.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

anisocoria
Pupils that are unequal in size. The problem may be caused by diseases of the eye or the nerves to the eyes.   (Modified: 10/22/1999)

anisocoria
Unequal size of the pupils.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

anisocoria
Unequal pupil size.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

anisocytosis
Varied sizes of red blood cells. May be an indicator of regenerative anemia.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

anorexia
Lack of appetite.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

anorexia
Lack of appetite. May be partial or total.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

anorexia
Lack of appetite.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

antagonist
A drug which when attached to a receptor blocks the receptor from being stimulated by an agonist drug.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

antagonist
A drug which when attached to a receptor blocks the receptor from being stimulated by an agonist drug.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

anterior chamber
Space between the cornea and iris and filled with aqueous.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

anterior uveitis
Inflammation of the iris and ciliary body.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

anthelmetics
Medications given to remove or kill worms. Also called wormers.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

anthropomorphism
Projecting human needs or wants on to an animal.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

antibiotic
A class of drug usually produced by living organisms (molds, bacteria or green plants), which can inhibit or kill undesirable bacteria. Example: penicillin.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

antibiotics
Drugs that kill bacteria, but not viruses.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

antibody
A protein produced by the immune system to protect the body from disease caused by infectious agents (bacteria, viruses).   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

antibody
A protein referred to as immunoglobulin and is derived from lymphocytes originating from the bone marrow (B cells). This form of immunity is essential for extracellular pathogens.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

anticoagulants
Drugs that reduce the ability of the blood to clot. Also called blood thinners.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

anticonvulsant
Drugs administered to reduce seizures.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

antidiuretic hormoneAbrev: ADH
A hormone produced in the brain that acts on the kidney causing it to save water and to produce less urine.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

antidiuretic hormoneAbrev: ADH
A hormone produced in the brain that acts on the kidney causing it to save water and to produce concentrated urine. The abbreviation ADH also stands for alcohol dehydrogenase.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

antidiuretic hormoneAbrev: ADH
A hormone produced by the hypothalmus and stored in the pituitary gland. ADH regulates the ability of the collecting ducts of the kidneys to reabsorb water. In the absence of ADH the animal voids large amount of urine.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

antiemetics
Drugs administered to reduce vomiting.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

antifungal
A drug used in the treatment of a disease caused by a fungus.   (Modified: 4/21/2001)

antigen
A foreign protein that stimulates the body’s immune system to produce antibodies.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

antigen
A substance that can induce an immune response.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

antigen
A substance that can induce an immune response.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

antipyretics
Drugs that suppress a fever in an attempt to bring the temperature to normal.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

antiseptic
A mild disinfectant used on living tissues.   (Modified: 10/14/1999)

antiseptic
A mild disinfectant used on living tissues   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

anus
The muscular tissue at the end of the rectum that keeps stool in the rectum until the animal defecates.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

aqueous
The clear liquid produced by the cells of the ciliary body which fills the anterior chamber (between the cornea and iris) and the posterior chamber (between the iris and lens).   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

arrested development
The parasites "hibernate" in the host as a fourth stage larva, and then in spring, they come out.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

arrhythmia
An abnormal heart rhythm.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

arrhythmia
Any variation from the normal rhythm of the heart beat.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

arteries
Blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the organs and tissues. Arteries contain more oxygen and nutrients than veins and are under higher pressure.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

arthritis
Inflammation of the joints.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

artificial inseminationAbrev: AI
The female is artifically inseminated with the males sperm, breeding does not take place.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

artificial insemination
Deposition of bull semen in the reproductive tract of the cow as means of impregnation.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

artificial inseminationAbrev: AI
Instilling semen into the female reproductive tract by a method other than natural breeding.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

artificial vagina Abrev: AV
A rubber cone attached to a collection tube that is used to collect semen.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

ARU
Animal Resources Unit   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

as fed basis
An expression of feed nutrient content with moisture included. Nutrient content on an "as fed" basis is always lower than on a "dry matter" basis.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

ascites
The accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Some define ascites as fluid of any type including blood, bile and other exudates. Others define ascites as including only pure transudates.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

ascites
The accumulation of fluid in the abdominal (peritoneal)(belly) cavity.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

ash
The inorganic mineral elements of animals and plants, determined by burning off the organic matter and weighing the residue (ash).   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

aspiration
Inhaling food or other materials into the airways.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

aspiration
Inhaling foreign debris.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

assessment
Your interpretation of patient data. For example what is the significance of nucleated RBCs.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

asystole
Cardiac arrest.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

ataxia
Incoordination or abnormal gait.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

atopy
Allergic inhalant dermatitis or atopic dermatitis. Allergens are true antigens which are usually inhaled or penetrate the skin as complete allergens or haptens. Allergens may also be ingested or injected.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

atresia
Regressing or shrinking in size   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

atria
The heart has 4 chambers; the two chambers that make up the top of the heart are the atria.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

atropine
A parasympatholytic drug which competitivly blocks acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors and increases sinus node automaticity and atrial-ventricular conduction resulting in an increase in heart rate.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

attack Rate
The proportion of a defined population affected during an outbreak.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

attack rate
The proportion of a defined population affected during an outbreak. Since the attack rate is based only on new cases of disease, it is comparable to incidence.   (Modified: 7/19/1999)

attenuation
The reduction in virulence of an infectious agent.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

attenuation
The reduction in virulence of an infectious agent.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

auscultation
To listen with a stethoscope. The heart and lung sounds are heard by auscultation.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

autoimmunity
T-cells start killing normal cells in the body.   (Modified: 10/19/1999)

autoimmunity
Producing an immune response against normal or altered body components.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

autoimmunity
Producing an immune response against normal or altered body components.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

available protein
The portion of the crude protein that can be used by the animal.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

average daily gainAbrev: ADG
The average daily liveweight increase of a growing animal; usually expressed in kg, g or lb./day.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

AVMA
American Veterinary Medical Association   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

AVSAB
American Veterinary Society for Animal Behavior   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

azathioprine
Imuran®-Burroughs Wellcome. An immunosuppressive drug used in cancer chemotherapy and in treatment of immune mediated diseases.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

azoospermia
The complete absence of sperm in an ejaculate.   (Modified: 10/27/2000)

azoospermia
The complete absence of sperm in the ejaculate.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

azotemia
An increase in nitrogen containing waste products in the blood. Azotemia may be pre-renal, renal or post-renal.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

azotemia
The increase of waste products in the bloodstream due to kidney failure.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

azotemia
An increase in nitrogen containing waste products in the blood. Azotemia may be pre-renal, renal or post-renal.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

B-cell
A population of lymphocytes that produces antibody which provides humoral immunity.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

B-cells
This cell population is derived directly from the bone marrow and is important because it gives rise to antibodies (humoral immunity).   (Modified: 10/19/1999)

bacteremia
Bacteria in the blood.   (Modified: 10/19/1999)

bacteremias
A bacterial population in the blood.   (Modified: 11/15/1999)

bacteria
Microscopic organisms that may be normal or may cause disease. The healthy body normally contains some bacteria.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

bacterial or prokaryotes
Single celled organisms without a true nucleus.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

bacterin
A vaccine made from a bacteria.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

bacterin
A vaccine containing killed bacteria.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

bacterin
A vaccine containing killed bacteria.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

bacteriocidal
Kills bacteria   (Modified: 7/19/1999)

bacteriocide
A substance that kills bacteria.   (Modified: 10/14/1999)

bacteriostat
A substance that inhibits or retards bacterial growth.   (Modified: 10/14/1999)

bacteriostatic
Inhibits or retards bacterial growth   (Modified: 7/19/1999)

balanced ration
A 24-hour feed allowance that provides an animal with appropriate amounts and proportions of all nutrients required for a given level of performance.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

balanoposthitis
Inflammation of the penis (balanitis) and prepuce (posthitis).   (Modified: 9/8/2000)

basal fluid loss
The basal fluid loss is the typical loss of fluids by both insensible and sensible routes. For a normal adult dog or cat, the net basal loss is about 20-30 ml/lb/day.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

batch furrow system
A management system where pigs are raised in batches from piglets to market hogs and as they mature the raising area they left is cleaned, disinfected, and left vacant until the next batch of pigs is purchased.   (Modified: 11/10/1999)

BCU
Biomedical Communications Unit   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

benign
A cancer that has low possibility of spread to other parts of the body.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

benign
Not malignant. Sometimes taken to mean noncancerous although some cancers are called benign if they do not spread to other parts of the body.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

benign prostate hypertrophy Abrev: BPH
A condition in which the prostate gland enlarges under the influence of sex hormones. BPH can lead to infection of the prostate gland.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

benign prostatic hypertrophyAbrev: BPH
Prostatic enlargement that occurs under the influence of testosterone. The dog may be asymtomatic or have signs of infertility, urinary tract infection or straining to defecate.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

benzoyl peroxide
Topical antibacterial agent svailable as a gel and shampoo.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

bi-parietal diameter
The diameter of the skull as determined using ultrasound. This diameter can be used to determine age of the fetus.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

bicarbonate precursors
Bicarbonate precursors are converted by the liver to bicarbonate and include Acetate, Gluconate, Lactate, and Citrate.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

bilateral
Involving both sides.   (Modified: 10/27/2000)

bile
A yellow fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder that helps in the digestion of fats.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

bile acids
Substances produces by the liver and secreted in the bile that aid digestion.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

bilirubin
A substance produced when old red blood cells are destroyed in the body. Abnormal amounts of bilirubin cause jaundice and are caused by breakdown of large numbers of red blood cells or by disease of the liver or gall bladder.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

biopsy
To take a small sample of an organ for microscopic examination.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

biopsy
Obtaining a piece of tissue for analysis using a specialized needle or a scalpel balde.   (Modified: 10/2/2000)

biopsy
Obtaining a sample of tissue for microscopic analysis.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

bitch
Another term for female dog.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

bladder
The sac-like structure, which holds urine until the urine can be passed.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

blepharitis
Inflammation of the eyelids.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

blepharospasm
Squinting.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

blephrospasm
Spasms of the eyelids.   (Modified: 5/25/2000)

blister
A thin walled structure containing fluid or air such as vesicles and bullae.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

blue eye
A post vaccination adverse event that had been reported by veterinarians vaccinating dogs with the modified-live canine adenovirus-1 vaccine (CAV-1).   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

blue eye
A post vaccination adverse event that had been reported by veterinarians vaccinating dogs with the modified-live canine adenovirus-1 vaccine (CAV-1).   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

boar
an uncastrated male swine   (Modified: 6/14/2007)

body condition scoreAbrev: BCS
A score based on a scale from 1 to 5 that asseses the amount of body fat on an animal. One is emaciated, three is ideal, and five is obese.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

body condition score
A score based on a scale of 1 to 5 that ranks the fatness of the animal. One is the thinest and five is the fatest.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

bolus
The rapid administration of a fluid or drug over a short time period.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

bone marrow
The soft center of bones. Blood cells are produced in the bone marrow.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

bony orbit
The bony fossa within the skull separating the eyes from the cranial cavity   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

brachiocephalic
A short skull. Used to describe breeds such as Pugs, Bulldogs and Pekingnese dogs.   (Modified: 5/25/2000)

bradycardia
An abnormally slow heart rate.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

bradycardia
A slow heart rate.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

breech
Area around the tail and back of hind legs.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

breech
Birth presentation with the buttocks first.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

breeding soundness examination Abrev: BSE
A series of diagnostic tests performed on a male animal in order to evaluate his capabilities as a stud. The results of the tests are typically recorded in a standardized fashion on a specific form.   (Modified: 10/2/2000)

breeding soundness examination Abrev: BSE
A series of diagnostic tests performed on a male animal in order to evaluate his capabilities as a stud. The results of the tests are typically recorded in a standardized fashion on a specific form.   (Modified: 9/1/2000)

bretylium
A drug which diminishes the release of norepinephrine from nerve endings with chronic oral dosing. It is used in treatment of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

broken mouth
A term describing a sheep who has lost one or more of its permanent incisors.   (Modified: 2/14/2000)

bronchi and bronchiole
Small tubular structures that lead from the trachea to the microscopic sac-like structures, alveoli, in the lungs.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

bronchoscope
A stiff or flexible tube with a light that is used to look inside the airways.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

bronchoscopy
Using a bronchoscope to look inside the trachea and large bronchi.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

buffer
A substance used in livestock rations to help resist changes in the acidity of the digestive tract. Examples: sodium bicarbonate, bentonite.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

bulbourethral glands
An accessory sex gland of the male.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

bulbus glandis
The rounded base of the penis.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

bulk tank
A refrigerated milk storage tank for each dairy herd.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

bullous pemphigoid
An immune mediated skin disease in which autoantibodies are directed against antigens in basement membrane zone.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

bullous retinal detachment
The retina has detached from all points of contact except for around the periphery and at the optic disk.   (Modified: 5/22/2000)

buphthalmos
Enlarged eye caused by glaucoma.   (Modified: 5/25/2000)

buretrol
Buretrols are small plastic cylinders that are filled from a stock bottle, or bag, of fluids. It is much easier to see the residual volume of fluid in a rigid sided container than a flexible container.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

butterfly catheter
A style of catheter that has a rigid needle attached to a plastic finger grip that looks like "wings" and then attached to a short piece of flexible tubing.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

byproduct
Feeds produced as a result of industrial manufacturing, plant or animal processing. Examples: distillers grains, beet pulp, meat and bone meal, fish meal.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

CAB
A new order of CPR in which chest compressions are first applied to cause circulation of blood, the an airway for breathing is established. Used more commonly in humans and originated due to concerns of transmission of infectious diseases. In animals consider this order if the arrest is witnessed and it is known that the patient does not have underlying respiratory disease.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

cachexia
Very thin, a synonym for emaciation.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

Caesarian sectionAbrev: c-sxn
Surgical removal of babies.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

Caesarian sectionAbrev: C-section
Surgical procedure to delivery fetuses.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

Caesarian section Abrev: C-section
Performing abdominal surgery to remove a fetus from the mother.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

calcinosis cutis
Hard crusts or white plaques in the skin of some patients with hyperadrenocorticism.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

calcitriol
The active form of 1, 25 dihydroxycholecalciferol (vitamin D). Can be exogenously administered to patients with chronic renal failure to suppress PTH secretion by the parathyroid glands with reversal of some of the clinical manifestations and possibly a resultant slowing of the rate of progression of renal dysfunction.   (Modified: 8/9/2004)

calcium channel blocker
These drugs inhibit the movement of calcium ion across cell membranes. Calcium channel blockers are used in the treatment of certain heart conditions. In CPR, they may be used after resusitation to protect the heart from the effects of calcium administered during CPR.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

calculi
Stones in the kidney, urinary bladder or occasionally gall bladder.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

Calf Hutch
Individual housing unit for young calves, assists in blocking transmission of disease.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

calf starter
Grain based mixes fed to young calves.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

California Mastitis Test or Wisconsin Mastitis TestAbrev: CMT/WMT
CMT is a cowside test that crudely measures the milk somatic cell count as a screen for subclinical mastitis. The WMT is a laboratory procedure which is a more precise measure of somatic cell count, although it is not as precise as a direct count.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

calipers
A device used to measure the diameter of the testes.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

callus
Hypertrophy of the stratum corneum especially over pressure points such as the elbow.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

calorieAbrev: kcal
A measure of energy; usually expressed as kilocalorie (kcal) or megacalorie (Mcal). 1 cal = the amount of energy required to increase the temperature of 1 g of water 1 degree C.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

calving interval
The time between one calving and the next. Should not exceed 13 months.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

camelids
Camelids are a large family including Old World camelids: camels and the bactrians, which are two-humped camels, and the New World camelids, llamas and alpacs   (Modified: 7/2/2001)

canine
A synonym for dog.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

canine adenovirus 1Abrev: CAV-1
The causative agent of infectious canine hepatitis.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

canine adenovirus 1Abrev: CAV-1
The causative agent of infectious canine hepatitis.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

canine adenovirus 2 Abrev: CAV-2
One of the agents causing "kennel cough". Also protects against CAV-1 (infectious canine hepatitis) when included in vaccines.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

canine adenovirus 2Abrev: CAV-2
One of the agents causing "kennel cough". Also protects against CAV-1 (infectious canine hepatitis) when included in vaccines.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

canine eosinophilic granuloma
Possibly a hypersensitivity reaction resulting in oral lesions in young, Siberian Husky dogs.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

canthus
corner of the eye (medial and lateral).   (Modified: 5/25/2000)

caprine
Goat.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

caprine arthritis-encephalitisAbrev: CAE
A disease characterized by the development of chronic arthritis and debility.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

carbohydrates
Major energy providing substrates including starches, sugars, cellulose and hemicellulose. All carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and are usually divided into two fractions - structural (fibre) and non-structural (sugars and starches).   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

carbonic anhydrase
An enzyme located in the eye and in the kidney tubules that is important in reabsorbing bicarbonate (kidney) and in the active secretion of aqueous in the eye.   (Modified: 5/23/2000)

carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
A drug that interfers with the action of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. e.g. acetozolamide, dorzolamide (Truceopt). These drugs are used to reduce aqueous production in animals with glaucoma.   (Modified: 5/23/2000)

carbuncle
Multiple cutaneous abscesses that are connected by sinuses.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

carcinoma
A type of cancer originating from epithelial cells. Example squamous cell carcinoma originates from cells of the skin and mouth, transitional cell carcinoma originates from the cells of the bladder.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cardiac
A synonym for heart.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cardiac pump theory
In CPR, when the chest is compressed the heart underneath the chest wall is directly compressed as well, squeezing blood out into the major blood vessels so it can return to the heart and then go to the brain. CPR in animals weighing less than 7 kg is probably using the cardiac pump theory.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

cardiomyopathy
A disease of the heart muscle. Weak heart muscle cannot pump blood normally.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cardiopulmonary resuscitationAbrev: CPR
A life saving procedure that includes the external compression of the chest wall to stimulate blood flow and breathing (by mouth to mouth or other methods) to provide oxygen.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

cardiovascular
The organ system that includes the heart and blood vessels.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

carrier
An animal who harbors an infectious agent but is not showing signs of disease.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

cast
Condition where full wooled sheep gets on its back and is unable to rise. Cast ewes are old ewes that are culled from the flock.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

castration
A synonym for neutering the male animal by removal of the testicles.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

castration
Another term for neutering a male animal by removal of the testes.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

catagen
The transition phase of the hair cycle between growth (anagen) and cessation of growth (telogen).   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

cataract
Abnormal cloudiness of the lens of the eye.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cataract
Any opacity of the lens from a dot to complete lens opacification.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

caudal
Toward the tail or rear of the animal.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

caudal
Refers to the rear or in a direction toward the rear of the animal. For example the abdomen is more caudal than the chest. The opposite term is cranial meaning closer to the head of the animal.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cell mediated immunityAbrev: CMI
Immunity mediated via lymphocytes and macrophages.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

cell mediated immunityAbrev: CMI
Immunity mediated via lymphocytes and macrophages.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

cellular immunity
Immunity due to macrophages and natural killer cells attacking any antigen. It is not specific to one antigen.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

central venous catheter
A long catheter with its tip placed in a large diameter vein such as jugular catheter, or a long, lateral saphenous catheter.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

central venous pressure Abrev: CVP
Central venous pressure measures the ability of the right heart to accommodate the fluid load presented to it. Normal animals have a central venous pressure of less than 5 cm of water. Assuming there are no clots in the IV catheter, central venous pressures repeatedly above 10 cm of water are indicative of impending onset of edema and fluid overload. Measurement of central venous pressure requires a central catheter (jugular catheter) be in place. CVP readings can be influenced by catheter position and patency.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

cerebellum
A smaller portion of the brain responsible for balance.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cerebrum
The major portion of the brain.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cerumen
Waxy secretion of the apocrine glands of the ear.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

ceruminolytic agents
Agents that loosen and dissolve ear wax. Includes dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, squalene, propylene glycol, carbamide peroxide, and others.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

cervicitis
Inflammation of the cervix.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

cervix
The neck of the uterus.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

cervix
Part of the female reproductive tract located between the vagina and uterus.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

cestodes
Tape worms.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

chaff
Husks or other seed coverings and other plant parts separated from seed during harvest or processing.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

Chediak - Higashi syndrome
A macrophage deficiency.   (Modified: 10/19/1999)

cheloid
A type of hypertrophied scar.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

chemical defibrillator
In the absence of an electrical defibrillator machine, certain drugs may be used in an attempt to reverse the cardiac arrhythmia of atrial fibrillation.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

chemosis
Edema of the conjunctiva.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

chemotherapy
Drugs used in the treatment of cancer.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cherry eye
Prolapse of the third eyelid gland.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

chiggers
Common name for Trombiculidiasis.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

chlorhexidine
Novalsan. Antibacterial, antifungal, and viricidal. Use primarily as soaks or in conjunction with whirlpool therapy.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

chlorpheniramine
An antihistamine.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

choanal atresia
A failure of a seperation to form between the nasal cavity and the nasopharnyx. A common birth defect in the crias.   (Modified: 2/14/2000)

cholangitis
Inflammation of the gallbladder.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

chorioditis
Inflammation of the choroid.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

chorioretinitis
Inflammation affecting the choroid and retina causing choroidal, +/- retinal, blood vessels to become leaky and either transudative fluid or exudative fluid and cells to leak into the space between the choroid and retina, elevating the retina.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

choroid
The posterior uvea lying between the sclera and retina, and joining the ciliary body anteriorly. The choroid provides nutrition to the outer layers of the retina and contains the tapetum.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

chronic
A disease or condition that has been present for several weeks or longer.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

chronic
Exposure to the poison occurs over a period of weeks, months, or years; onset of signs may be sudden and dramatic, or can be insidious like a slow loss in body condition or reduced productivity.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

chronic interstital nephritisAbrev: CIN
Chronic interstitial nephritis (CIN) is similar to the term end stage renal disease (ESRD) in that it is a non specific histologic finding on renal biopsy and may be the end result of renal disease of any etiology.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

chronic interstital nephritisAbrev: CIN
Chronic interstitial nephritis (CIN) is similar to the term end stage renal disease (ESRD) in that it is a non specific histologic finding on renal biopsy and may be the end result of renal disease of any etiology.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

chronic renal diseaseAbrev: CRD
Irreversible renal disease caused by damage to a large part of both kidneys. Two thirds of both kidneys must be damaged before the animal loses the ability to concentrate and dilute urine and 75% of both kidneys must be destroyed before azotemia is observed.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

chronic renal diseaseAbrev: CRD
Irreversible renal disease caused by damage to a large part of both kidneys. Two thirds of both kidneys must be damaged before the animal loses the ability to concentrate and dilute urine and 75% of both kidneys must be destroyed before azotemia is observed.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

chronological records
Records that are organized by arranging all the data in the record in the order in which it was collected.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

chrysotherapy
Gold salt therapy used in treatment of immune mediated disorders. Solganol®-Schering Co.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

cilia
Eyelashes   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

ciliary body
The section of uvea between the iris and choroid. It functions to produce aqueous and is the site of attachment for the lens zonules. Contraction of the ciliary body muscle results in lens accommodation for focusing.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

cirrhosis
Scar tissue in the liver. Severe cirrhosis causes liver failure.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

clean wool
Wool after it has been "scoured" to remove the above materials.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

clear media
Includes the aqueous, lens and vitreous.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

clemastine
Tavist an over the counter antihistamine.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

clinical study
A clinical study or clinical trial is a test of a new drug or procedure that is being evaluated for effectiveness in animals with naturally occurring disease. In some cases the effectiveness of the new drug or procedure is compared with currently available treatments.   (Modified: 4/24/2000)

Clinimix™
A pre-made solution used in partial parenteral solution.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

clone
The progeny of a single cell.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

clone
The progeny of a single cell.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

clostridium
A group of bacteria that produce spores. One type of clostridium causes tetanus.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

cognitive-evaluative dimension of pain
This relates to prior experience, level of anxiety, and conditioned responses that arise from the cerebral cortex and their influence on response to pain.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

cold hemagglutination disease Abrev: CHD
A form of autoimmune hemolytic anemia in which there is formation of cold acting anti-erythrocyte antibodies (IgM)resulting in agglutination of red cells in areas exposed to cold surface temperatures such as the extremities, ear margins and nose.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

cold nursery
A nursery where piglets older than four weeks old are kept and the ambient temperature is around 65F.   (Modified: 11/10/1999)

colic
Abdominal pain.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

colic
Abdominal pain not necessarily associated with the digestive system; any painful abdominal stucture can cause colic.   (Modified: 2/10/2000)

colic
Intense abdominal pain.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

colisepticemic E. coli
E. coli that spreads from the gut through the calf’s body and causes abscessed in the brain, eyes, kidneys, and joints. This occurs when the newborn calf ingests it in manure, mud, or other material before or along with getting colostrum.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

colitis
Inflammation of the large intestine (colon).   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

collagenases
Enzymes secreted by certain bacteria that break down collagen and inhibit wound healing.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

colloid
Microscopic particles suspended in a solution. The particles in a colloidal solution are large in molecular weight and can pull fluid into the intravascular space. Because the particles are large they stay in the vascular space longer than crystalloids and therefore exert their effect for a longer time.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

colloidal solutions
Colloidal solutions are solutions that contain large particles. These large particles are either proteins or complex sugars, such as dextrans or hetastarches. Colloidal solutions because they are physically large molecules, will stay in the bloodstream and hold water in the bloodstream by their oncotic effect.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

colloids
Colloidal solutions contain large particles, particles in excess of 50,000 molecular weight units. These particles may be proteins or complex sugars.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

colon
Part of the large intestine.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

colostrum
The accumulated secretions of the mammary gland over the last few weeks of pregnancy. It is rich in IgG (65-90%) with variable levels of IgA and IgM. Form of passively acquired immunity (short-lived).   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

colostrum
Milk that is high in protective antibody and necessary for successful passive transfer.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

colostrum
The milk secreted by female mammals for the first few days after birth. It is particularly rich in nutrients and antibodies essential for newborn survival.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

colostrum
The first milk produced by the dam after giving birth. Colostrum is rich in antibodies.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

comedo (comedomes)
Keratin and dried sebum plugging a hair follicle.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

commensal
A relationship where one party gains but at no cost to the other.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

commensalism
Parasitic state in which the parasite lives with the animal without causing disease.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

commensalism
Parasitic state in which the parasite lives with the animal without causing disease. Be cautious with this type of parasite.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

commodity feed
A feed that has high energy, and often a high protein content.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

complement
A protein complex consisting of enzymes that facilitate the reaction of antibody with antigen resulting in destruction of cells or invading bacteria.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

complete blood countAbrev: CBC
Also known as a CBC. The number of red blood cells and white blood cells in the blood stream.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

complete blood countAbrev: CBC
A blood test in which the number of red and white blood cells and platelets are counted.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

complete feed
A thoroughly blended mixture of different feed ingredients formulated to meet specific nutrient requirements.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

compound
To mix components following a "recipe" or protocol.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

compounding
To create a medication by combining parts or to change the formulation of a drug, for example from tablet to liquid.   (Modified: 2/14/2003)

computerized tomography scanAbrev: CT
Many x-ray pictures are taken during a CT scan. A computer is used to put the x-ray pictures together to obtain a 3-dimensional view of a structure.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

concentrate
A classification of feedstuffs high in energy and low in fibre; usually further divided into energy and protein concentrates. Often used interchangeably with supplement. Examples: corn, barley, soybeans.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

confirmed sire
One that has been used for breeding before and has known good fertility.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

congenital
A defect that is present at birth. The defect may either be inherited or be caused by something during gestation.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

congenital
Present at birth. May be hereditary or acquired during gestation.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

congenital
Present at birth.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

conjunctiva
The pink tissues surrounding the eye.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

conjunctiva
The thin, moist, mucus membrane that lines the inside of the eyelids (palpebral conjunctiva) and curves around at the fornix to cover the eyeball up to the cornea (bulbar conjunctiva) ventrally it also covers both sides of the nictitans   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

conjunctivitis
Inflammation of the pink tissues (conjunctiva) surrounding the eye.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

conjunctivitis
Inflammation of the conjunctiva.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

constipation
Excessively firm stool.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

contact dermatitis
Inflammation of the skinfrom contact with an irritant.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

contagious
An infection capable of spread amongst animals by direct contact, e.g. Pasteurella spp. in nasal droplets   (Modified: 1/1/1900)

contagious disease
A disease that is capable of being spread amongst animals by direct contact, e.g. Pasteurella spp. in nasal droplets.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

contagious mastitis
Mastitis that is caused by coagulate negative Staphylococci.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

contrast
A dye given by mouth or in the vein that will make some organs more visible on an x-ray (radiograph).   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

controlled breeding
Also called a timed breeding technique. Modification of the physiology of the ovaries in such a way that one can predict exactly when that female is going to be ready and breed her only once.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

contusion
Bruise.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

coprophagia
Eating feces (stool).   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

copulation
Insertion of the penis into the female reproductive tract.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

core vaccine
A vaccine that should be administered routinely.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

corneal degeneration
After certain corneal or scleral injuries, lipid or cholesterol can be deposited in the cornea.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

corneal reflex
Used to assess corneal sensation.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

corneal sequestrum
A focal area of collagen degeneration in the cornea with brown to black discoloration.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

corneoscleral transposition
A surgical technique used to patch conjunctiva over a corneal ulcer.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

cornification
The angular appearance of epithelial cells during estrus under the influence of estrogen.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

cornification
The process of changes in vaginal epithelial cells under the influence of estrogen.   (Modified: 9/1/2000)

coronary band
The tissue right around the top of the hoof, similar to a fingernail cuticle.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

coronavirus
A single stranded RNA virus   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

corpora nigra
Structures present mainly on the upper pupil margin in horses, upper and lower margins in the lamb. Quite obvious and elaborate on llamas and alpacas. Their function is not really known.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

corpus hemorrhagicum
Also called a hemorrhagic follicle. A follicle that has been present on the ovary and has not been given the chance to ovulate so it will continue growing and becomes large and cyst-like and bleeds inside.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

corpus luteum
A structure in the ovary that produces progesterone.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

corpus luteum
A structure on the ovary that produces progesterone.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

corticosteroid
A general term for drugs that act like the hormone, cortisol. Also called a glucocorticoid.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cortisol
A hormone produced by the adrenal gland that affects the function of most organs in the body. Some primary functions are to increase blood sugar and to reduce inflammation.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cotyledonary type of placenta
A type of placenta where the connection between the placenta and the fetus is based on buttons of tissue. Cattle and sheep have this type of placentation.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

COX inhibitor
Drugs that block cyclooxygenase and that are intended to relieve pain and inflammation.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

cranial
Toward the head.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

cranial
Refers to the head or in a direction toward the front of the animal. For example the chest is more cranial than the abdomen. The opposite term is caudal meaning closer to the rear of the animal.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

creep area
An area where new born piglets crawl to, to keep warm and avoid being accidentally crushed by their mother.   (Modified: 11/15/1999)

cria
The term describing a llama from the age of birth to weanling (4-6 months).   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

cria
A baby llama.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

cria
The newborn or young offspring of llamas and alpacas.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

crimp
The "wave" in the staple of wool   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

crude protein
An estimate of the total protein content of a feed; determined by analyzing the nitrogen content of the feed and multiplying the result by 6.25. Crude protein includes true protein and other nitrogen-containing substances such as ammonia, amino acids, nitrates.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

crust
Dried exudaet on the skin surface.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

crutching
Removing the wool from around the breech area.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

cryoprotectant
A substance such as glycerol which is added to semen to protect the sperm membrane from injury by ice crystals formed during the freezing and thawing process.   (Modified: 8/28/2000)

cryptorchid
A condition seen in intact male animals where a testicle failed to descend into the scrotum.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

cryptorchidism
Failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotal sac.   (Modified: 9/1/2000)

cryptorchidism
The failure of one or both testicles to descend into the scrotum.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

cryptorchidism
A condition in which one or both testes are not located in the scrotum.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

crystalloid
A solution containing small particles. The particles can pass through a semipermeable membrane. Lactated Ringers is an example of a crystalloid solution.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

crystalloids
Crystalloid solutions are solutions that contain small particles, particles with molecular weights of less than a few 100 molecular weight units. Examples of crystalloid solutions are lactated Ringer’s solution, Ringer’s, and the dextrose and saline containing solutions.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

CSAW
Center for the Study of Animal Well-being   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

cull cow
Cow removed from a herd due to poor profitability. Generally due to poor production, reproduction, or mastitis.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

culture
Evaluating a sample of fluid or tissue for bacterial growth.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

cush
The laying down position of the female camelid during mating.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

Cushing’s Disease
A disease of the adrenal gland that produces too much of the hormone cortisol. Too much cortisol causes signs including drinking, eating and urinating increased amounts and loss of hair on the body. Also called hyperadrenocorticism.   (Modified: 10/12/1999)

cutaneous lupus erythematosus Abrev: CLE
Discoid lupus. A form of systemic lupus erythematosus which only onvolves the skin.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

cutaneous vasculitis
Skin lesions caused by deposition and subsequent activation of soluble immune complexes along the basement membrane of blood vessels.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

cycle
Events that happen in the female such as ovulation, hormone production, receptivity, etc. In camelids the cycle does not follow regular time periods as it does in horses or cattle.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

cyclitis
Inflammation of the ciliary body.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

cyclo0xygenaseAbrev: COX
An enzyme involved in the production of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid in cell membranes. There are 2 forms, COX 1 & COX 2. COX 2 plays a greater role in inflammation.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

cyclocryotherapy
A freezing probe is applied to sclera to destroy the underlying ciliary body in treatment of glaucoma.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

cyclophosphamide
Trade name is Cytoxan®-Mead Johnson. A chemotherapy drug also used in the treatment of immune mediated diseases.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

cycloplegic
A drug that paralyses the ciliary muscle and helps reduce pain.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

cyst
A fluid-filled structure.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

cystic endometrial hyperplasia Abrev: CEH
Morphological changes occurring in the uterus under the influence progesterone secreted from the corpus lutei (CLs) of the ovaries during diestrus.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

cystitis
Inflammation of the bladder.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cystocercus
The larval stage of a tapeworm encysted in muscle.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

cythioate
Proban® - Haver) an oral organophosphate.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

cytokine
A protein secreted by cells, that carries a signal to other cells.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

cytokines/interleukins
regulatory proteins secreted primarily by lymphocytes to facilitate interaction between other lymphocytes and macrophages e.g. IL-2, IL-12, CSF, TNF.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cytology
Looking at normal and abnormal cells with a microscope.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cytology
The microscopic evaluation of cells removed from an organ or tissue.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

cytoplasmic droplet
A round drop of cytoplasm that moves from the neck of the sperm down it's tail and is gone by the time normal sperm are ejaculated.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

dacryocystitis
Inflammation of the lacrimal sac usually as a result of infection.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

dacryocystorhinography
A technique in which radiopaque contrast material is injected into the punctum and flushed through the nasolacrimal duct, followed by lateral and VD radiographic views of the skull, to evaluate the nasolacrimal system and surrounding bony structures.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

dags
Breech wool that is coated with feces. "To dag" the sheep means to remove this wool by selective shearing or clipping with dagging shears.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

daltons
A term used to indicate a unit of mass equal to 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

DAMN IT acronym
A method of looking at possible causes for a problem.
D= degenerative
A = anomalies or autoimmune
M= metabolic
N = neoplasia or nutritional
I = inflammation or infectious or immune mediated or iatrogenic
T= toxic or traumatic idiopathic   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

DAMNIT
A acronym that serves as a memory aid to identify potential causes for a patient's problems.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

dapsone
Diaminodiphenylsulfon, Alvosulfon®. Used in the treatment of subcorneal pustular dermatosis.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

data base
The first component of a problem-oriented record in which information is gathered. There are several types of data bases.   (Modified: 10/19/2000)

data base
The data base is information that is collected by the user of the medical record, either the veterinarian or a technician. In order to collect a similar amount of baseline information about all patients, and to avoid omissions, the minimum data base should be defined in advance and should always be collected. The data base may include laboratory tests, radiographs, or other diagnostic tests.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

days in milk
The number of days a cow has been milking in her current lactation, same as days since fresh.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

days open
The number of days between calving (parturition) and conception. Should be less than 120 days.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

dead-end host
It can not be transmitted from human to human. Example: brucellosis.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

debride
To clean out dead or dying tissue from a wound.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

deciduous teeth
Non-permanent teeth(baby teeth)that will be shed and replaced with permanent adult teeth.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

decubital ulcers
Pressure sores, usually seen over bony prominances.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

deep mycoses
Diseases incluing Histoplasmosis, Blastomycosis, Coccidioidomycosis and Cryptococcosis.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

defecation
Passing of stool.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

defecation
The act of passing stool (feces).   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

defecation
To pass feces, stool or manure.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

definitive host
Where sexual reproduction takes place.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

degradable intake proteinAbrev: DIP
Portion of intake protein that is degraded (broken down) by rumen microbes to ammonia and amino acids. DIP is used for microbial synthesis.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

dehydration
An inadequate amount of fluid in the body. The minimum amout of dehydration that can be detected is about 5% loss of total body weight as fluid loss.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

dehydration
Loss of fluid from the bloodstream and tissues.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

delayed wound closure
This is a wound you will suture but not immediately; first you debride the wound several times through bandage changes to make it more amenable to closing.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

demodicosis generalized
Also called the pustular form. Many small focal areas of involvement or a diffuse generalized distribution. Lesions include generalized erythema, crusting, scaling and patchy to diffuse alopecia.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

demodicosis localized
Also called squamous. One or more well circumscribed areas of alopecia with mild scaling and erythema usually located on the forelimbs, face and on periocular skin.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

dermatitis
Inflammation of the skin.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

dermatitis herpetiformis
A pruritic, vesiculoulcerative dermatitis which is poorly documented in veterinary medicine and is associated with IgA deposition and gluten enteropathies in man.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

dermatologic examination
The dermatologic exam should include examination of the entire hair coat, careful palpation of the skin, careful examination of the skin surface over several areas of the body, visual examination (otoscopic) of the external ear canals, and inspection of the foot pads. In many cases it is helpful to clip hair from the patient so that specific lesions may be seen more clearly. It is also helpful to have a form for the medical record, on which lesions may be drawn and recorded, as well as other information.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

dermatomyositis
A immune-mediated, familial dermatopathy suggested to be a primary vasculopathy with secondary dermatitis and myositis. Breed predilection includes Collies and Shetland Sheepdogs.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

dermatophilosis
Pyoderma caused by the aerobic and facultative anaerobic actinomycete: Dermatophilus congolensis. Also called Streptotricosis, rain scald, and streptothricosis (horses)   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

dermatophyte test medium Abrev: DTM
Agar for growing fungi. Dermatophyte test media (DTM) contains phenol red as a pH indicator and substances to inhibit growth of saprophytic fungi and bacteria.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

dermatophytosis
Ringworm. Dermatophytes live and grow only on non-viable keratinized tissue (skin, hair, nails). They will not grow in living cells.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

dermis
The layer of skin between the epidermis and the subcutaneous tissues.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

dermis
The dermal layer of the skin that contains blood vessels, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, erector pili muscles, and apocrine sweat glands.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

dermoid
A piece of skin growing on the cornea.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

Descemet's membrane
A clear membrane forming the inner boundary of the cornea.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

descemetocele
Very deep ulcers right down to decemets membrane.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

dextran
High molecular weight polysaccharides used to expand blood volume. A colloid. Dextrans have an average molecular weight of 40,000 daltons (Dextran 40) or 75,000 daltons (Dextran 70).   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

dextrose
Another term for sugar.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

dextrose 5%Abrev: D5W
5% dextrose is hypotonic relative to extracellular fluid. It contains only dextrose, no electrolytes. 5% dextrose is a constituent of most maintenance solutions. It can be used a sole fluid for rehydration for animals who cannot tolerate the administration of sodium, such as those with cardiac disease. More commonly, it is used as part of the rehydration solution in these sodium intolerant animals, used in combination with lactated Ringer’s or sodium chloride.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

dextrose hypertonic
Hypertonic dextrose is any percentage of dextrose which has an osmolality in excess of extracellular fluid. Dextrose is available in several commercial strengths. Any concentration of dextrose can be created by adding additional dextrose to a commercial solution. The predominant use of hypertonic dextrose solutions is as a calorie source in total parenteral nutrition solutions. There is also an indication to promote urine flow in patients with oliguric acute renal failure. TPN solutions containing 50% dextrose are extremely hypertonic and can cause an irritation to the blood vessel if given in a small peripheral vein, such as cephalic or saphenous. Hypertonic solutions are typically given in larger veins such as the jugular vein in which blood flow is faster to dilute the hypertonicity of the infused solution and reduce irritation to the lining of the blood vessel.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

diabetes mellitus
Also known as sugar diabetes. An insufficient amount of insulin is produced by the pancreas resulting in a high blood sugar level.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

diagnostic plans
Diagnostic plans are made in order to determine if a certain disease is present. For example you may plan to perform bile acid analyses to determine if liver failure is present.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

diagnostic tests
These are tests performed to find the cause of a pet’s problem. Diagnostic tests may include analysis of blood, urine, and other body fluids; x-rays (the correct term is radiographs); biopsies, etc.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

diamond eyes
A combination of severe entropion and ectropion involving both upper and lower eyelids. Most commonly seen in Saint Bernard dogs.   (Modified: 5/25/2000)

diarrhea
A stool that is looser than normal.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

diestrus
A stage of the female reproductive cycle that follows the period of receptivity.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

diestrus
The stage of the estrous cycle which follows estrus. In the bitch diestrus lasts 62-63 days from the LH peak.   (Modified: 8/29/2000)

dietary history
This includes: the diet the animal is currently receiving and for how long? Have they ever home cooked a hypoallergenic diet (potato and pinto beans, lamb and rice)?   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

dietary scours
When the calf is getting so much nutrient intake they can not absorb it all and it is fermenting in the colon producing gassy, large volume, smelly diarrhea.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

Diff-Quik stain
A 3-step staining process to stain cytology samples.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

differential diagnosis
A possible cause for a patient's problem. Also called a rule out.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

differential diagnosis
Differential diagnoses are also known as rule-outs and are possible causes for the problems displayed by a patient. For example, kidney failure is one possible cause for polyuria in a dog or cat.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

digestibility
A measure of the extent a feed or nutrient is digested; usually expressed as a percent.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

digestible energyAbrev: DE
Energy that is available to the animal by digestion; measured as the difference between gross energy content of a feed and the energy contained in the animal's feces (gross energy minus fecal energy.)   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

digestion
The changes that occur to a feed within the animal's digestive tract to prepare it for absorption and use.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

digestive system
An organ system that absorbs and digests food. The digestive system includes the esophagus, stomach, intestine, liver and pancreas.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

digital examination
Using gloved fingers to examine. Usually refers to rectal or vaginal exams.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

digital manipulation
Manually stimulating the penis in order to obtain a semen sample for analysis.   (Modified: 10/2/2000)

dihydrotestosterone Abrev: DTH
The form of testosterone used by the prostate gland.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

dihydrotestosterone Abrev: DTH
The form of testosterone utilized by the prostate gland.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

dimensions of pain
There are 3 dimensions of pain: sensory-discriminative, motivational-affective and cognitive-evaluative, which influence how an individual interprets and responds to a painful stimulus.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

dimethyl sulfoxideAbrev: DMSO
An organic solvent used to deliver other substances that themselves are less soluble.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

diphenhydramine HCL
Benadryl. An antihistamine.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

direct lifecycle
There is a single host and the host animal is the animal that is being infected.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

direct lifecycle
Single host direct transmission from the environment.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

discharge summary
A description of a patient's workup. May include an overview in client terms of what tests were performed and test results as well as a description of treatment and care for the patient.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

discharge summary
A written overview of the evaluation of a patient written in lay terms for the animal owner. The summary includes what was done to the animal, what were the results of tests and what treatment is to be performed at home and how to do it.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

discoid lupus erythematosus Abrev: DLE
A form of systemic lupus erythematosus which only onvolves the skin.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

disease triangle
Interactions between the host, the pathogen, and the environment.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

disinfectant
Germicidal chemical that destroys microorganisms and the potential infectivity of a material   (Modified: 7/19/1999)

disinfectant
A germicidal chemical that destroys microorganisms and the potential infectivity of a material.   (Modified: 10/14/1999)

disinfection
To destroy germs by using chemicals (disinfectants) or by physical means such as high temperature.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

diskospondylitis
Infection of the intervertebral disk with concurrent osteomyelitis of contiguous vertebrae.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

disseminated intravascular coagulationAbrev: DIC
Concurrent stimulation of the cloting and fibrinolytic systems by a disease leading to either thrombosis or abnormal bleeding.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

disseminated intravascular coagulation Abrev: DIC
Concurrent stimulation of the cloting and fibrinolytic systems by a disease.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

disseminated intravascular coagulationAbrev: DIC
Concurrent stimulation of the cloting and fibrinolytic systems bu disease.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

distichiasis
An extra row of cilia or eyelashes grow from the meibomian gland openings on the eyelid margin.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

diuretics
Drugs that increase the amount of urine produced.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

Domboro's solution
Aluminum acetate solution. A topical drying agent (astringent).   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

dominant follicle
The largest follicle on the ovary that secretes hormones that will suppress the other follicles so that the female will have only one egg and will prevent twinning.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

doxapram
A respiratory stimulant. No longer recommended for use in CPR.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

Dr. Lawrence Weed
A physician who developed the problem oriented medical record and problem oriented approach to patient care in the 1960's.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

draft
Separate sheep into groups.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

drove/droving (Australian)
To move sheep.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

dry cow therapy
To control mastitis, administer antibiotic therapy during the dry period.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

dry cow therapy
Antibiotic therapy given at the onset of the nonlactating period of the cow. It is intended to cure and protect against intramammary infection.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

dry matter
Feed residue left after all moisture has been removed by drying (i.e., 100% dry matter).   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

dry matter basis
An expression of feed nutrient content after the moisture has been removed by drying. Used to compare nutrient composition or animal intake of feeds differing in moisture content.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

dry period
A period of 45-60 days when lactation is halted before the next lactation begins. The dry period is required for rejuvenation of secretory parenchyma.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

duodenum
The portion of the intestine directly attached to the stomach.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

dysmature cria
A cria that has developed too slow inside the uterus. They are born weak and lacking vigor.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

dysphagia
Difficulty eating and swallowing.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

dysphoria
Agitation or restlessness.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

dyspnea
Difficulty breathing.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

dystocia
A problem birth.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

dystocia
Difficult birth.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

dystocia
Difficulty giving birth. Maternal or fetal factors may cause dystocia.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

dystocia
Difficult birth.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

dysuria
Difficulty urinating.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

echocardiography
An ultrasound exam of the heart. Passing sound waves through the heart to see the internal structure of the heart. A plain radiograph (x-ray) only shows the shape of the heart but not its internal structure.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

eclampsia
Low blood calcium occuring in female dogs and cats at the end of gestation, or more commonly during early lactation. Small breed dogs are more commonly affected. Low calcium causes signs of muscle tetany.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

ECP
A type of estrogen sometimes used to mismate.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

ectoparasites
Parasites that reside on the skin.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

ectoparasites
They live outside of the body. Many of the arthropod parasites are ectoparasites; they land on your skin and cause an infestation.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

ectopic
In an abnormal location.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

ectopic cilia
Abnormal eyelashes originating from the upper lid on the conjunctival side, usually just a few millimeters in from the eyelid margin, about mid way along the upper lid.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

edema
The abnormal accumulation of fluid in a tissue or cavity.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

edema
The presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the interstitial tissue spaces of the body. Edema fluid may accumulate in the subcutaneous tissues, peritoneal cavity (ascites), pleural cavity (hydrothorax) or pericardial sac (hydropericardium).   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

edema
The presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the interstitial tissue spaces of the body. Edema fluid may accumulate in the subcutaneous tissues, peritoneal cavity (ascites), pleural cavity (hydrothorax) or pericardial sac (hydropericardium).   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

edema
The accumulation of fluid in abnormal locations in the body.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

ejaculate
The movement of semen through the urethra to outside the penis.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

ejaculation
The ejection of sperm from the penis.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

electrocardiographyAbrev: ECG
A test that measures the electrical activity of the heart. ECG or EKG.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

electroejaculation
Using an electrical stimulus to cause the male to ejaculate semen.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

electrolytes
A general term for sodium, potassium, chloride and magnesium.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

electroretinography
A diagnostic technique used to evaluate the function of the photoreceptors, specifically used to diagnose retinal degeneration.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

elizabethan collar
A large plastic collar that is placed over the head of a dog or cat. It has a cone shape and is used to keep them from licking or chewing on themselves.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

emaciation
Severe weight loss. Extremely thin. Also called cachexia.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

embryo
The early stages of development of a baby in the uterus.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

embryonic vesicle
The sac containing the embryo which later in pregnancy develops into a fetus.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

emesis
A synonym for vomiting.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

emollient
A softening agent.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

encephalitis
Inflammation of the brain.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

end stage renal disease Abrev: esrd
Advanced, irreversible chronic renal disease. Also a non-specific histologic finding on renal biopsy that may be the end result of renal disease of any etiology.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

end stage renal diseaseAbrev: ESRD
Advanced, irreversible chronic renal disease. Also a non-specific histologic finding on renal biopsy that may be the end result of renal disease of any etiology.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

end-tidal CO2
Monitoring CO2 of exhaled gases provides information about the patient's approximate CO2 levels and is an indirect indicator of cardiac output and blood flow.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

endemic disease
An infection that is engrained in a particular area.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

endocrine
The body system that produces hormones. Endocrine organs include the pancreas, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, and adrenal glands. Diseases of the endocrine system may lead to the production of too much or too little hormone.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

endometritis
Uterine inflammation or infection due to bacteria or fungi.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

endoparasites
They live within the animal.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

endorphin
A morphine-like peptide that is produced in the brain and which binds to certain receptors to reduce the sensation of pain.   (Modified: 6/18/2003)

endoscope
A long, flexible lighted tube used to see inside structures.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

endoscopy
Passing an instrument into a cavity to see the insides.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

endothelial dystrophy
An inherited condition seen mainly in older dogs characterized by death of endothelial cells allowing water to enter the stroma resulting in permanent edema.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

endothelium
The epithelial cells lining the inside of a blood vessel.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

endotoxemia
A type of shock caused by absorbing endotoxin which is released from some types of bacteria in the intestine when those bacteria die.   (Modified: 12/22/2000)

endotoxin
A substance released from some types of bacteria in the intestine that when absorbed into the blood causes fever and shock called endotoxic shock.   (Modified: 12/22/2000)

energy
A nutrient essential for maintenance, growth, production and reproduction. Energy is required in larger amounts than any other nutrient except water, and is often the limiting factor in livestock production.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

energy terminology
Gross Energy (GE) The total combustible energy in a feed, determined by measuring the amount of heat produced when a feed sample is completely burnt in a bomb calorimeter.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

enophthalmos
Retraction of globe into the orbit resulting in a sunken eye.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

enteral
Delivery of drugs or nutrients to the intestianl tract by deposition in the mouth, stomach or jejunum.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

enteric
A pathogen that is related to E. coli.   (Modified: 11/15/1999)

enteropatogenic E. coli
Specific strains of E. coli that attach very tightly to gut wall and secrete various toxins, causing both excess secretion and malabsorption as well as general systemic effects on the calf.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

enterotoxemia
Clostridial disease whre organisms produce a toxin that causes a gangrene or necrotizing affect to the small intestinal tract of the animal.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

enterotoxemia
A highly fatal disease related to the proliferation of gram negative organisms in the intestine of susceptible animals.   (Modified: 2/10/2000)

enterotoxigenic E. coli
A specific strain K99 that attaches to intestinal cells and causes a hypersecretory diarrhea.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

entropion
Inversion or turning inward.   (Modified: 5/25/2000)

enucleation
Removing the eye from the orbit: leaves most of the orbital contents behind.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

environmental history
This includes a travel history of the animal, a description of the home environment, the percentage of time the patient spends indoors vs outdoors, and the presence of other pets in the household.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

environmental mastitis
Mastitis caused by coliforms and environmental Streptococci.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

enzyme
A complex protein compound produced in living cells which speeds up chemical reactions without itself being changed or destroyed. It is added to animal feeds to supplement low enzyme production by some young animals or to improve utilization of feeds.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

enzyme linked immunosorbant assayAbrev: ELISA
An immunologic test that uses enzyme linked antiglobulins.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

enzyme linked immunosorbant assay Abrev: ELISA
An immunologic test that uses enzyme linked antiglobulins.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assayAbrev: ELISA
An immunological technique for measuring the amount of a substance such as antibody or antigen in blood.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

enzymes
A substance that makes a chemical process faster. For example digestive enzymes break down food to hasten the process of digestion.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

eosinophil
A type of white blood cell observed in increased numbers in allergies.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

epidemiologists
Scientists that study disease in its natural habitat, rather than in a controlled laboratory environment.   (Modified: 7/19/1999)

epidemiology
The study of health and disease in populations of animals.   (Modified: 7/19/1999)

epidemiology
The study of disease progression.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

epidermal membrane
Also called the fourth membrane. A membrane that covers the cria entirely at birth.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

epidermis
The outer most layer of skin which is made of sequential layers called the stratum corneum, stratum granulosa, stratum spinosum, stratum basalie, and basal lamina.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

epidermis
The top layer of skin above the dermis.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

epididymis
A structure that is connected to the testicles and stores sperm prior to ejaculation.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

epididymis
A convoluted, tubular structure connected to the testes that stores sperm.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

epididymitis
Inflammation of the epidiymis often resulting in infertility in rams.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

epidural anesthesia
Injection of an anesthetic agent into the space outside the dura mater of the spinal cord.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

epidural anesthesia
Injection of an anesthetic agent into the space outside the dura mater of the spinal cord.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

epilate
Removing hair.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

epinephrine
A vasopressor drug which via alpha stimulation increases systemic vascular resistance and improves coronary and brain blood flow.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

epiphora
Excessive tearing.   (Modified: 5/25/2000)

epistaxis
Bloody nose.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

epithelial cells
Cells that line the surface of an organ such as the epithelial cells lining the vagina.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

epitope
The site on a bacteria that specific antibody recognizes and binds to.   (Modified: 10/19/1999)

equitainer
A container originally designed for shipping horse semen; also used to maintain temperature control of semen from other species.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

erythema multiforme Abrev: EM
An acute, self-limiting eruption of the skin and mucous membranes characterized by distinctive gross lesions and a diagnostic sequence of pathologic changes.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

erythrocyteAbrev: RBC
Red blood cell.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

escape rhythm
When the SA node is firing at an abnormally slow rate, another location in the heart takes over pacing the heart. This may be the AV node or a ventricular focus.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

esophagus
A muscular tube leading from the mouth to the stomach.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

essential amino acids
Amino acids that must be supplied in the diet, as the animal either cannot synthesize them or cannot synthesize them in sufficient quantities to meet requirements.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

essential host
Humans are an essential element of the organisms life cycle. Example: Taeniasis - cysticercosis.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

estimated crude protein from non-protein sourceAbrev: ECP from NPS
Non-protein nitrogen sources such as urea or ammonia; used in ruminant diets in limited amounts to enhance dietary protein levels.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

estrogen
Female hormone produced by follicles on the ovary.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

estrogen
The hormone that makes a female receptive to the male.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

estrous
Refers to the entire reproductive cycle compared to estrus which refers to the phase of the cycle that follows proestrus.   (Modified: 8/29/2000)

estrous cycle
Describes all parts of the heat cycle whereas estrus is just the stage of the heat cycle during which the female is receptive to the male.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

estrus
A stage in the reproductive cycle of the female dog and cat, also known as heat.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

estrus
The time of receptivity, when the bitch accepts the male for breeding.   (Modified: 8/29/2000)

estrus
The time of the estrous cycle during which the bitch is receptive to the male.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

estrus
period of female's "heat" or maximal sexual receptivity   (Modified: 6/14/2007)

ether extract laboratory test
A test to measure the total fat content of a feed.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

ethyl lactate
Etiderm®, Virbac. A topical agent that alters follicular environment to reduce bacterial flora.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

excoriation
Superficial loss of the epidermis caused by physical damage such as scratching.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

exenteration
Removal of the entire orbital contents, the globe and everything within the orbit.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

exophthalmos
Bulging of the eye. May be due to a space-occupying lesion that pushes the eye forward or may be a specific breed attribute (e.g. Pekingnese dogs).   (Modified: 5/25/2000)

exposure
Exposure does not equal poisoning, it is the dose. If you smell ammonia you have been exposed but you have not been poisoned with ammonia gas.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

extracelluar fluidAbrev: ECF
Includes fluid around cells and in the plasma. Comprises 1/3 of total body water.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

extracranial
Outside of the head.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

eyelid agenesis
Born without part of the upper eyelids   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

facial fold trichiasis
Seen in brachycephalic breeds that have a large facial fold and the hair from the facial fold touches the medial aspect of the cornea.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

Farrow
to give birth   (Modified: 6/14/2007)

farrow
To give birth.   (Modified: 11/15/1999)

farrowing area
Where the sow furrows.   (Modified: 11/10/1999)

fat
A term used in a general sense to refer to both fats and oils. Fat supplied 2.25 times as much energy as carbohydrates. Both fats and oils share the same general structure and chemical properties, but have different physical properties, i.e., oils are liquid at room temperature.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

fat corrected milk
Adjustment of milking production records to reflect the energy cost of fat production.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

fat soluble vitamins
Includes vitamins A, D, E and K. Vitamins A, D and E are supplemented in many livestock rations. Fat soluble vitamins are stored in body fat reserves.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

FDIU
Field Disease Investigative Unit   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

fecal-oral transmission cycle
A cycle of disease spread where the pathogen is shed in the sick animal's feces and infects other animals when they ingest something contaminated by the infected feces.   (Modified: 11/15/1999)

feces
Another word for solid wastes (stool).   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

feed additives
Products added to basic feed mixes to improve the rate and/or efficiency of gain, prevent certain diseases, or preserve feeds.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

feed efficiency
A ratio describing the amount of feed required per unit of production (grain, milk, eggs).   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

feed grade
Term to describe the quality of feedstuffs suitable for animal, but no human, consumption.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

feed processing
Physical or chemical changes in feedstuffs which influence their nutritional value.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

feedstuff
An edible material that contributes nutrients to animals' diets.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

feline
Cat.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

Feline Immunodeficiency VirusAbrev: FIV
A virus that chronically suppresses the immune system of cats resulting in secondary infectons.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

feminization
A male showing signs of being under the influence of the female hormone, estrogen.   (Modified: 10/27/2000)

fenoxycarb
An insect growth regularor recently withdrawn from the market.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

fentanyl patches
A sticky patch impregnated with the narcotic fentanyl which is applied topically for sustained release and absorption of the drug.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

fenthion
Prospot®-Haver. A "pour-on" organophosphate preparation.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

fertility
Capable of conceiving and bearing offspring.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

fertilization
The process of sperm combining with eggs(ova.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

fertilization rate
The percentage of females bred that get pregnant. A 90% fertilization rate means that 9 out of 10 females bred get pregnant.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

fetal
Refers to a puppy or kitten before birth.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

fetotomy
Cutting a dead fetus into parts to allow removal of the pieces from the dam.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

fetus
The later stages of development of a baby before birth.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

fetus
Refers to prior to being born.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

fibro-vascular membranesAbrev: PIFMS
Cats with uveitis form fibro-vascular membranes due to chronic inflammation. Chronic uveitis that smolders for a long time causes these membranes to form on the iris and they eventually block the drainage angle causing glaucoma.   (Modified: 5/23/2000)

fibrosis
Scarring.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

figure of 8 suture pattern
A suture pattern used on wedge resections of the lower eyelid. It gives good apposition and the eyelid eyelid margin remains continuous.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

finasteride
Proscar ® is a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor that prevents the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

fipronil
Trade name is Frontline. A phenylpyrazole insecticide which acts as a neurotoxin.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

fissure
Splitting of the skin surface.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

flatulence
Passing gas from the intestinal tract. May be a sign of disease of the small intestine.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

flehmen
A curling of the upper lip or open mouth behavior which is a normal mating behavior in the male alpaca and llama.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

flow sheets
Flow sheets are records of patient data over time. These may include a tabular summary of laboratory test results, vital signs or drugs administered.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

flow sheets
A table or chart that allows one to easily see the trends over time in numerical values.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

fluid therapy
Fluid therapy is broadly defined to include the administration of many types of fluids including crystalloids and colloids. Fluid therapy may be given to prevent or correct fluid deficits or electrolyte abnormalities. Correct water imbalance from excessive fluid loss or inadequate intake Hemorrhage Vomiting Diarrhea Polyuria Expand blood volume - shock Correct electrolyte imbalance(s) Correct acid-base imbalance Supply blood components Supply calories and nutrients Renal disease - promote renal blood flow   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

fluorescein stain
A stain applied to the cornea to assess for corneal and conjunctival epithelial defects or to assess the patency of the nasolacrimal ducts.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

fluoroscopy
A type of radiograph (x-ray) in which motion can be seen.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

flushing
Increasing the feed amount and/or quality (energy intake) prior to mating to increase the ovulation rate.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

FLUTD
Feline lower urinary tract disease. A collection of signs in cats resulting in blood in the urine, straining to urinate, and urinating in abnormal locations. The older term is feline urologic syndrome (FUS).   (Modified: 10/12/1999)

fly strike
Cutaneous myiasis. A result of cutaneous parasitism by larvae of flesh flies, blow flies and/or the screwworm fly.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

follicle
Structures on the ovary that contain the eggs.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

follicle stimulating hormone Abrev: FSH
FSH has the primary responsibility for promoting growth of follicles on the ovaries.   (Modified: 8/29/2000)

follicle stimulating hormone Abrev: FSH
FSH has the primary responsibility for promoting growth of follicles on the ovaries.   (Modified: 10/2/2000)

follicle stimulating hormone Abrev: FSH
Promotes growth of follicles on the ovaries.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

follicular cycle
The series of events that occur when the ovary produces a follicle (an egg) and the follicle goes through a series of changes.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

folliculitis
Superficial bacterial dermatitis associated with the hair follicle.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

fomite
A vector of disease transmission that has no part in the pathogen's life cycle. A contaminated milking towel that spreads disease from cow to cow with each subsequent use is a fomite.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

food hypersensitivity
An allergy. An adverse reaction to food with a proven immunologic basis.   (Modified: 2/2/2001)

food intolerance
An adverse reaction to food that does not have a proven immunologic basis.   (Modified: 2/2/2001)

food poisoning
An adverse reaction to a food caused by a direct effect of a toxin.   (Modified: 2/2/2001)

forage
A legume or grain feed.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

forage
Plants or plant parts fed to, or grazed by, domestic animals. Forage may be fresh, dry or ensiled (i.e., pasture, green chop, hay, haylage). Often used interchangeably with roughage.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

fourth membrane
Also called epidermal membrane. A membrane that covers the cria entirely at birth.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

fracture
Break in a bone.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

free mating
free mating Also called paddock mating. A single male is introduced with a band of females.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

free stall barn
Housing for cattle where cows can freely enter unoccupied stalls. Most common housing barn in the Northwest.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

frenulum
A piece of tissue that maintains adhesion between the penis and prepuce.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

fresh frozen plasma
Plasma that has been separated from the RBC shortly after blood collection and then frozen. Coagulation factors are preserved in this blood product.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

freshening
Parturition, calving.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

frontline spray
Generic name is Fipronil.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

frozen plasma
Plasma that has been separated from RBC after blood collection but not with the intent of preserving the labile coagulation factors. Used primarily to provide plasma protein in hypoproteiemic patients.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

fungicide
Kills fungi   (Modified: 7/19/1999)

fungicide
A substance that kills fungi.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

furuncle
A painful, nodular adcess in the skin.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

FUS
Feline urologic syndrome. A collection of signs in cats resulting in blood in the urine, straining to urinate, and urinating in abnormal locations. The more current term is feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD).   (Modified: 10/12/1999)

gait
The appearance of the animal as it is moving. The gait is evaluated for lameness, incoordination, dragging toenails, etc   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

gastric
Another term for stomach.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

gelding
A castrated male llama.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

genome
The total gene complement of a set of chromosomes.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

genome
The total gene complement of a set of chromosomes.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

germs
Microscopic organisms that can cause disease. May include bacteria and viruses.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

gestation
The duration of pregnancy.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

gestation
The duration of pregnancy.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

gestation
Pregnancy.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

Gilt
a young swine which has not farrowed   (Modified: 6/14/2007)

gingiva
The gums.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

gingivitis
Inflammation and swelling of the gums surrounding the teeth. The gingiva are normally pink and become red when inflamed.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

glabrous
Hairless areas of skin.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

glaucoma
Increased fluid accumulation in the eye causing increased pressure, pain and leading to blindness if untreated.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

glaucoma
Increase in ocular pressure in excess of 25 mm of Hg.   (Modified: 5/23/2000)

glomerular basement membraneAbrev: GBM
One component of the filtration barrier of the glomerulous, interposed between the lumen of the glomerular capillary and the urinary space.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

glomerular filtration rateAbrev: GFR
The rate at which the glomeruli form filtrate from blood in glomerular capillaries. GFR correlates with renal function and to renal blood flow. Kidney disease and dehydration both result in a decrease in GFR.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

glomerular filtration rateAbrev: GFR
The rate at which the glomeruli form filtrate from blood in glomerular capillaries. GFR correlates with renal function and to renal blood flow. Kidney disease and dehydration both result in a decrease in GFR.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

glomerulonephropathyAbrev: GN
Disease that begins in the glomerulus   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

glomerulonephropathyAbrev: GN
Disease that begins in the glomerulus   (Modified: 9/20/1999)

glomerulus
The microscopic functional unit of the kidney. Disease of the glomeruli causes protein to leak into the urine.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

glucocorticoid
A general term for drugs that act like the hormone, cortisol. Also called a corticosteroid.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

gonadotropin releasing hormone Abrev: GnRH
This hormone is secreted from the hypothalamus and stimulates the release of follicle stimulating and luteinising hormones (FSH/LH) from the pituitary gland. LH is believed to be involved in testicular descent into the scrotum.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

gonadotropin-releasing hormone Abrev: GnRH
A hormone released from the hypothalamus which stimulates the release of other hormones including follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormoneAbrev: GnRH
A hormone released from the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).   (Modified: 8/29/2000)

gonadotropin-releasing hormone Abrev: GnRH
A hormone released from the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

gonioscopy
A technique used to evaluate the iridocorneal angle to help judge the risk for glaucoma in an eye.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

grade cow
A cow that is not registered.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

granuloma
A focal inflammatory reaction.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

greasy wool
The wool as it comes off the sheep. It contains yolk (wool grease lanolin) suint (sweat) and dirt and vegetable fiber.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

griseofulvin
Oral treatment for dermatophytes.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

hand breeding
Also called hand mating. The females are completely supervised during the mating process and the male is led to the female and controlled during the breeding process.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

hapten
A substance that becomes antigenic when it complexes with proteins.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

hard-pad disease
Crusty, dry footpads that may occur as a consequence of canine distemper infection.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

hay
A forage that has been dried.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

hay additives
Organic acids or acid-forming compounds designed to allow hay to be harvested at higher than normal moisture contents by preventing the microbial activity responsible for spoilage.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

hazard
The likelihood or the probability that a substance, i.e., the poison, will induce a disease state under conditions of use.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

head mange
Common name for notoedric mange.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

heat
Estrus. Period of fertility when the cow is receptive to the male. It only lasts 24 hours in the bovine.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

heifer
Young bovine female starting her first lactation having calved for the first time. Age at first calving should be 2 years.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

hemangiosarcoma
A cancer of blood vessels. This cancer usually occurs in the spleen, skin or sometimes the heart.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hematology
The study of blood.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hematoma
The accumulation of blood under the skin.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hematuria
Red blood cells in the urine.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hematuria
Bloody urine.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

hematuria
Blood in urine.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

hemocytometer
A piece of equipment that is used to count white blood cells and can also be used to count sperm.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

hemoglobin
The substance contained in red blood cells that carries oxygen to parts of the body.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hemolysis
The breakdown of red blood cells.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hemolysis
The breakdown of red blood cells.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hemolysis
Breaking or destruction of red blood cells.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

hemorrhagic follicle
Also called a corpus hemorrhagicum. A follicle that has been present on the ovary and has not been given the chance to ovulate so it will continue growing and becomes large and cyst-like and bleeds inside.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

hemospermia
Blood in the ejaculate   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

hemospermia
Blood in the ejaculate.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

hemostat
A surgical instrument used to pinch small blood vessels to stop bleeding (hemostasis is to stop bleeding). Hemastats may be used in non-surgical procedures, for example to pluck hair from the ear canals.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

hepatic
A synonym for liver.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

herd summary
Summary statistics for herd production, reproduction, health, and demographic factors.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

hermaphrodism
A condition where reproductive structures of both the male and the female are in one body.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

hernia
The abnormal protrusion of part of an organ or tissue through the structures that normally contain it. Also called a rupture.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

hetastarch
A colloid solution of hydrolyzed amylopectin containing a range of particle sizes, from 10,000 daltons to over 3 million daltons.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

heterologous
Derived from an animal of a different species.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

high/low string
High/low producing cows are split into feeding groups to optimize ration inputs for milk output.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

hippomanes
Normal formations in the cavity of the placenta where the fetus was located.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

hogget
Sheep 12 to 24 months of age.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

homologous
Related or similar in characteristics.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

horizontal transmission
Disease transmission from one animal to another.   (Modified: 7/19/1999)

horizontal Transmission
Ways infections are spread between animals i.e. direct, indirect, or airborne horizontal transmission.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hormone
A substance produced by an endocrine organ that moves around the body in the blood stream.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hormone
A chemical formed in one part of the body that is carried in the blood to other parts of the body where it has its effect.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

Horner's Syndrome
Loss of sympathetic innervation resulting in miosis, ptosis and enopthalmos.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

hot nursery
A nursery where piglets are raised until they are 4 weeks old and the ambient temperature is very warm.   (Modified: 11/10/1999)

hot spot
Acute moist dermatitis or pyotraumatic dermatitis. A surface pyoderma.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

Hotz- Celsus technique
A surgical procedure for correction of lower lid entropion.   (Modified: 5/25/2000)

Hotz-Celsus
A surgical technique used to repair entropion.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

human albumin
A colloidal solution prepared from pooled human plasma and heated to kill many types of blood borne diseases.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin stimulation test Abrev: HCG stimulation
A stimulation test which measures testosterone in response to HCG administration. Used to detect retained testicles.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

humoral
Immunity mediated via antibody   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

humoral immunity
Immunity provided by antibodies produced by B cell lymphocytes.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

humoral immunity
Antibody produced by the B-cells to fight a specific antigen.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hybridomas
Myeloma cells cultured in the lab survive indefinitely. Myeloma cells can be fused with a normal B cell. The resulting hybridoma produces large quantities of monoclonal antibody.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hydrocephalous
The accumulation of fluid in the ventricles of the brain. The head may appear to be large and dome shaped. Many small breeds of dogs have a degree of hydrocephalous that is normal for the breed. Severe hydrocephalous damages brain tissue.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hydrocephalus
The abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain. The fluid causes an increase in the pressure inside the brain and death of some brain cells.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

hydrolyzed
Breaking a compound into smaller and simpler compounds by a chemical reaction with water.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

hydroxyzine HCl
Atarax® an antihistamine.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

hymen
A thin membrane partially occluding the opening to the vagina in a virgin.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

hyper
This prefix is used in conjunction with many terms and means an increase, for example, hyperthermia means an increase in temperature.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hyperalgesia
Unexpected increased pain intensity from a stimulus. Excessive sensitivity to pain.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

hypercalcemia
Elevation of blood calcium.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hypercalcemia
Elevated blood calcium. The most common cause is the production of a biochemical substance by tumors, resulting in the retention of calcium. This is called pseudohyperparathyroidism, most commonly occurring in patients with lymphoma or tumors of the apocrine anal sac. Pseudohyperparathyroidism has been reported associated with other tumor types. Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs uncommonly.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

hyperchloremia
Elevated blood chloride.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

hyperesthesia
Increased sensitivity to stimulation. Is most commonly seen with peripheral nerve diseases, such as, tumors and polyradiculoneuritis.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

hyperglycemia
Elevated blood glucose.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

hyperglycemia
Elevation of blood glucose. There are numerous causes of hyperglycemia including diabetes mellitus, hyperadrenocorticism, excitement and the administration of glucose or glucocorticoids.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hyperglycemia
Elevated blood sugar.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hyperkalemia
Elevated potassium.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hyperkalemia
Elevated serum potassium.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

hyperkalemia
Elevated blood potassium.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

hyperkeratosis
Increased thickness of the horny layer of the epidermis.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

hypermagnesemia
Elevated blood magnesium.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

hypernatremia
Elevated blood sodium.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

hypernatremia
Elevated blood sodium. Hypernatremia is uncommon in dogs and cats and most often is iatrogenic from the repetitive administration of high sodium containing solutions. Animals who have severe hypernatremia in excess of 170 meq/L show nervous system signs of depression progressing to coma.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

hyperosmolarity
An increase in the osmotic concentration of the blood. Hyperosmolarity of the blood can draw water from RBC's causing lysis or from neurons causing neurologic signs such as coma.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

hyperosmotic agents
Drugs such as mannitol and glycerine which draw water to themselves. Used to control edema and swelling.   (Modified: 5/23/2000)

hyperphosphatemia
Elevated phosphorus.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hyperplasia
Proliferation of cellular elements usually accompanied by increased size of the organ   (Modified: 8/18/1999)

hypersensitivity type IV
An exagerated reaction of the cellular components of the immune system.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

hypertension
Elevated blood pressure.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hypertensive
Elevation in blood pressure.   (Modified: 4/27/2000)

hypertensive retinopathy
Retinal damage caused by edema or hemorrhages beneath the retina causing it to detach. Systemic hypertension is the cause of the detachment.   (Modified: 5/22/2000)

hyperthyroidism
Increased production of thyroid hormone. Hyperthyroidism occurs commonly in geriatric cats but is rare in dogs.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

hyperthyroidism
Increased amount of thyroid hormone.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hypertonic
A fluid that contains a ratio of electrolytes to water that is greater than extracelluar fluid. A fluid that contains a concentration of electrolytes greater than extracellular fluid.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

hypertonic
Hypertonic solutions have higher osmolalities than extracellular fluid/plasma.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

hypertonic dehydration
Dehydration that develops after a hypotonic fluid is lost from the body. The fluid lost from the body contains a ratio of electrolytes to water that is less than extracelluar fluid. The osmolality of ECF is hypertonic after the electrolyte-poor fluid is lost. This is a rare form of dehydration in dogs and cats.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

hypertonic saline
Hypertonic saline has a concentration of sodium and chloride greater 0.9% and is used in states of hypovolemic shock. A very small volume of hypertonic saline administered IV to a hypovolemic patient will result in the mobilization of fluid from the cells into the extracellular fluid compartments, causing an expansion of blood volume and maintenance of blood flow to vital organs. Hypertonic saline solutions must subsequently be followed by the administration of isotonic solutions to reestablish fluid balance in intracellular and extracellular fluid locations.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

hypertrophic
A thickening or an enlargement of an organ.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hypertrophy
Enlargement   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

hyperventilation
Fast breathing. Also called hyperpnea.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

hyphema
Blood in the anterior chamber.   (Modified: 5/22/2000)

hypo
This prefix is used in conjunction with many terms and means a decrease, for example, hypothermia means a decrease in temperature.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hypoalbuminemia
Low concentration of blood albumin.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

hypocalcemia
Low blood calcium.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

hypocalcemia
Low blood calcium. Hypocalcemia causes tetany (rigidity of muscles) in dogs and cats but flaccid muscle weakness in cattle.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

hypocalcemia
Abnormally low calcium levels in the blood.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

hypocalcemia
Low blood calcium.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

hypocalcemia
Low blood calcium.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

hypodermoclysis
A synonym for subcutaneous.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

hypoglycemia
Abnormally low blood glucose.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

hypoglycemia
Low blood glucose.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

hypoglycemia
Low blood sugar.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hypoglycemic
Low blood sugar.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

hypokalemia
Low blood potassium. A hallmark sign of hypokalemia is weakness.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

hypokalemia
Low potassium.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hypokalemia
Low serum potassium.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

hypomagnesemia
Low blood magnesium.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

hyponatremia
Low blood sodium. The most common cause is Addison's disease or iatrogenic from the administration of electrolyte free solution, such as 5% dextrose.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

hypoplasia
Smaller or softer than normal due to loss of normal tissue.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

hypoplasia
Smaller than normal.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

hypopyon
Pus in the anterior chamber of the eye.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

hyposensitization
The administration of increasing doses of antigen to reduce sensitization to the antigen.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

hypotension
Low blood pressure.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hypotension
Abnormally low blood pressure.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

hypothalamus
A part of the brain. some hormones associated with reproduction are produced or stored in the hypothalamus.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

hypothyroid
Low function of the thyroid gland.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hypotonic
A fluid that contains a ratio of electrolytes to water that is less than extracelluar fluid. A fluid that contains a concentration of electrolytes less than extracellular fluid.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

hypotonic
Hypotonic solutions have lower osmolalities than extracellular fluid/plasma.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

hypotonic dehydration
Dehydration that develops after a hypertonic fluid is lost from the body. The fluid lost from the body contains a ratio of electrolytes to water that is greater than extracelluar fluid. The osmolality of ECF is hypotonic after the electrolyte-rich fluid is lost. The best example of this type of dehydration is hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's Disease).   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

hypotony
Decreased intraocular pressure.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

hypovolemia
Reduction in circulating blood volume either due to loss of fluids or redistribution of fluids.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

hypovolemia
Reduced circulating blood volume either due to blood or fluid loss or to redistribution of blood flow as occurs during shock.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

hysteropexy
A surgical procedure during which the uterus is "tacked" to prevent prolapse.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

IAAAM
International Association of Aquatic Animal Medicine   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

iatrogenic
Disease that was caused while trying to diagnose or treat another condition. For example, if a complication such as excessive bleeding arises during a biopsy procedure, the complication is iatrogenic.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

iatrogenic
Disease that was caused while trying to diagnose or treat another condition. For example, if a complication such as excessive bleeding arises during a biopsy procedure, the complication is iatrogenic.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

iatrogenic infection
Infections that are acquired through human intervention. Also referred to as nosocomial infections.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

iatrogenic infections
Infections acquired through human intervention.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

icterus
A synonym for jaundice, a yellow discoloration.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

idiopathic
Unknown cause.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

idiosyncrasy to food
A qualitatively abnormal response to a food or food additive that resembles a hypersensitivity.   (Modified: 2/2/2001)

iIritis
Inflammation of the iris   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

imidocloprid
Advantage, Bayer) is a neurotoxin available as a topical "pour-on" for use in dogs and cats over 4 months of age.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

immune mediated disease
Immune mediated indicates that the immune system is involved in the genesis of disease. Immune mediated diseases can be due to a foreign antigens (viruses, drugs) acting as haptens, adhering to or altering the surface of cells so that antibodies form against the hapten - cell complex or against cell antigens that become exposed. True autoimmunity indicates that the immune system is damaging unaltered "self". Often it is not possible to differentiate between true autoimmunity and immune mediated diseases.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

immune-mediated
The immune system is supposed to protect against disease by destroying foreign objects such as bacteria. If the immune system attacks normal parts of the body such as red blood cells, the disease is immune-mediated.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

immunoglobulins
There are several kinds that contribute to immunity overall: IgG most abundant in serum and colostrum. IgM "early" antibody; the first one to appear when there is an infection. IgA secreted on mucosal surfaces of respiratory, intestinal and genital tracts. IgE allergic antibody to allergens.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

immunoprophylaxis
Administration of vaccines to confer protection against infectious agents.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

immunoprophylaxis
Administration of vaccines to confer protection against infectious agents.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

immunosuppression
Any failure of the immune response usually becomes apparent through increased susceptibility to infection and disease.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

impetigo
Superficial pustular pyoderma seen in dogs less than 9 months of age.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

inactive problems
Problems which are usually of a minor nature and are not being further diagnosed or treated.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

inactive problems
Inactive problems are unresolved problems that are not being addressed diagnostically or therapeutically. Usually they are problems of a minor nature.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

incidence
The proportion of sampled animals that develop a condition of interest over a defined period of time. It is the measure of the occurrence of disease over time in a defined group of susceptible animals.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

incidence
The proportion of sampled animals that develop a condition of interest over a defined period of time. It is the measure of the occurrence of disease over time in a defined group of susceptible animals. Incidence can also be applied to measuring the occurrence of new cases of disease in an ever-changing population over time.   (Modified: 7/19/1999)

incisions
A wound made by something sharp like glass fragments or a scalpel blade, that penetrates all layers of the skin.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

incisors
The front teeth.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

incontinence
The inability to hold urine in the bladder. The animal leaks urine either while awake or asleep.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

indirect lifecycle
There are multiple hosts and so the parasite is actually required to pass from one host to another host, and sometimes to another host, before it comes back to the original host in this lifecycle.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

indirect transmission
A mode of disease transmission where the environment is somehow part of the transmission cycle; i.e. contaminated water in a water trough spreads the disease.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

indolent ulcer
Ulcerative lesions found most frequently on the upper lips, but also seen in the skin elsewhere or in the oral cavity.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

induced ovulator
An animal such as the queen that requires vaginal stimulation in order to ovulate.   (Modified: 9/1/2000)

induced ovulator
Ovulation is triggered by breeding.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

infection
Multiplication of organisms such as bacteria in the body usually leading to disease.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

infectious agents
The agents that cause disease. They may be bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

infectivity/infectiousness
Capacity of parasite to become established in the animal’s tissues – e.g. rotavirus and coronavirus in calf scours, are carried in the gastrointestinal tract of calves (> 4 weeks of age) and older cattle without clinical signs of disease.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

infertility
Inability to conceive and bear offspring.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

inflammation
Swelling, redness, heat and pain of a body part.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

inflammation
Redness, swelling, heat and pain of a body part.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

initial database
The initial information collected on a patient when the patient is first seen. The minimum amout of information that will be collected should be defined in advance and may differ for different types of patients.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

initial problem list
A listing of problems identified from history and physical examination. This list becomes more specific as the results of diagnostic tests become available.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

initiation
A stage in the development of acute renal failure defined as the time from renal insult to recognition of decreased GFR, decreased urine output and increased BUN and creatinine. This phase lasts 1-2 days.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

initiation
A stage in the development of acute renal failure defined as the time from renal insult to recognition of decreased GFR, decreased urine output and increased BUN and creatinine. This phase lasts 1-2 days.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

inotropic
Affecting the force of muscle contractions. For example a positive inotropic drug increases the force of contration.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

insensible fluid loss
Insensible routes of fluid loss are those that are not readily observed and include the loss of fluid through the respiratory tract during respiration and loss of fluid by sweating. Dogs and cats sweat minimally through their foot pads so most insensible losses are through the respiratory tract. The fluid lost during breathing is close to pure water and does not contain many solutes (a hypotonic loss). The basal loss of water through breathing is about: 10-15 ml/lb/day. High environmental temperatures, fever and activity result in increased insensible losses.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

insulin
A hormone produced by the pancreas that controls blood sugar levels.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

inter-estrus interval
The duration between consecuative estrous cycles, usually about 4 months in the bitch.   (Modified: 8/29/2000)

inter-trochanteric fossa
A depression located between the greater and third trochanters of the femur. This is the site at which a needle penetrates into the femur for intraosseous administration or for collection of bone marrow.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

Interceptor
Generic name is Milbemycin oxime.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

interdigital pyoderma
Bacterial infections between the toes.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

interferon
A glycoprotein produced by macrophages, lymphocytes and epithelial cells in response to viral infection.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

interleukins
They are also referred to as cytokines. These are regulatory proteins that are secreted primarily by lymphocytes to help the interaction between the lymphocyte and a macrophage.   (Modified: 10/19/1999)

intermediate host
A host where maturation of the parasite or asexual reproduction takes place, in other words, reproduction where there is division and amplification of the parasite, but there is no sex involved.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

international unitAbrev: IU
A standard unit of potency of a biological agent. Example: vitamin, hormone, antibiotic, antitoxin. Also called a USP unit.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

interposed abdominal compression CPR
In CPR, interposed abdominal compressions with chest compressions with an alternating rhythm between the abdomen and the chest.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

interstitial cell tumor
A testicular tumor that usually displays benign biologic behavior.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

interstitial cell tumor
A type of cancer of the testes.   (Modified: 10/27/2000)

interstitial cystitisAbrev: IC
a condition of the bladder resulting in hematuria and pollakiuria that resembles the condition in humans with the same name   (Modified: 8/18/1999)

interstitial fluid
Interstitial fluids are a subset of extracelluar fluids that surrounding cells and includes fluid in: dense connective tissue, bone, cartilage, cerebrospinal fluid, the gastrointestinal tract, and bile.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

interstitial space
A subset of extracellualr fluid including fluid surrounding cells, in connective tissue, in bone, in cartilage, cerebrospinal fluid, fluid in the gastrointestinal tract and bile.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

intertriginous pyoderma
Skin fold pyoderma occurring in lip folds (spaniels), facial folds (brachycephalic breeds), vulvar folds (obese, spayed females) and corkscrew tails (brachycephalic breeds).   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

intestine
The gut. A tubular organ that attaches to the stomach. The intestine is responsible for absorbing nutrients and water and eliminating wastes. The first part of the intestine is the duodenum, followed by the small intestine, large intestine, colon and rectum.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

intra-mammary antibiotics
Antibiotics instilled directly into the mammary gland.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

intracardiac route
The administration of drugs directly into the heart through the chest wall.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

intracellular fluid
Fluid located within cells.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

intracellular fluid Abrev: ICF
Fluid located inside cells. Comprises 2/3 of total body water.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

intracellular parasites
Parasites that reside with in the hosts cells.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

intracranial
Inside of the head.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

Intradermal skin testingAbrev: IDST
Injection of known amounts of allergens intradermally and comparing the reaction to a positive (histamine) and negative control (saline).   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

Intralipid™
A solution of lipids available in 10 or 20% solution that can be administered IV.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

intramedullary
A route of drug or fluid administration into the bone marrow cavity which is considered to be confluent with the vascular space. Fluids or drugs administered via this route, enter the blood stream very rapidly.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

intramedullary
Delivering drugs or fluids into the marrow cavity.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

intraocular pressureAbrev: IOP
The pressure within the globe. IOP is increased in glaucoma.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

intraosseous
A route of drug or fluid administration into the bone marrow cavity which is considered to be confluent with the vascular space. Fluids or drugs administered via this route, enter the blood stream very rapidly.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

intraosseous
An administration route for fluids and drugs administered in the marrow cavity of bones.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

intratracheal route
The administration of drugs into the trachea usually using a catheter placed near the tracheal bifurcation.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

intravascularAbrev: IV
Given directly into the blood stream.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

intravascular space
The vascular space. Space located in the blood vessels.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

intravascular space
The vascular space. Space located in the blood vessels.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

intravenous
IV. Giving a drug or other substance into a vein for a rapid effect.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

intromission
The act of placing the penis in the vagina.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

intussusception
A telescoping of a part of the intestinal tract into another part of the intestine.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

ionofores
One of the most common feed additives that we give cows to increase production, to increase efficiency, and increase rate of gain.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

ionophore
A carboxylic polyether antibiotic that affects the transport of ions across cellular membranes and inhibits the growth of some gram positive bacteria. It is used in growing cattle to enhance feed efficiency and stimulate growth. Examples: Bovatec, Rumensin.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

Iridencleisis
Treatment for glaucoma in which a window is made in the sclera and the iris pulled through and sutured under the conjunctiva.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

iris
The iris forms a diaphragm in front of the lens with a central sphincter-type opening called the pupil. It functions to regulate the amount of light entering the posterior segment of the eye.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

iris bombe
Posterior synechiae that occur all the way around the pupil and aqueous cannot flow through.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

Iris hypoplasia
In blue-eyed animals: may see iris hypoplasia where the iris fails to develop properly and the irises of these young animals are almost transparent.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

iris prolapse
Prolapse of the iris through a defect (ulcer) in the cornea.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

iso-ionic
Iso-ionic refers to a similar concentration of a particular electrolyte in a solution compared to extracellular fluid; therefore solutions which are iso-ionic with regard to sodium will have sodium concentrations comparable to the sodium concentration of extracellular fluid and plasma, which is approximately 145 mEq/l in the dog and cat.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

isomer
Different spacial configurations of a drug or chemical compound.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

isosthenuria
Urine with the same specific gravity as glomerular filtrate indicating that the renal tubules have performed no work to either concentrate or dilute glomerular filtrate. There are also non-renal causes of isosthenuria.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

isosthenuria
Urine with the same specific gravity as glomerular filtrate indicating that the renal tubules have performed no work to either concentrate or dilute glomerular filtrate. There are also non-renal causes of isosthenuria.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

isothermalizer
Part of the Equitainer semen container system.   (Modified: 8/28/2000)

isotonic
Isotonic or iso-osmotic fluids have the same tonicity or osmolality as does extracellular fluid, which in the dog and cat is approximately 280-310 mOsm/l.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

isotonic
Isotonic or iso-osmotic fluids have the same tonicity or osmolality as does extracellular fluid, which in the dog and cat is approximately 280-310 mOsm/l.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

isotonic
Isotonic or iso-osmotic fluids have the same tonicity or osmolality as does extracellular fluid, which in the dog and cat is approximately 280-310 mOsm/l.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

isotonic dehydration
Dehydration characterized by the loss of water and electrolytes in a ratio similar to extracellualar water. Dogs and cats most often have isotonic dehydration as water and electrolytes are lost.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

isotretinoin
(Accutane-Roache. A retinoids which is a synthetic derivatives of vitamin A.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

Itraconazole
Sporanox-Janssen. An oral treatment for dermatophytes.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

ivermectin
Trade name is Ivomec. Marketed by Meriel.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

IVMA
Idaho Veterinary Medical Association   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

IVSA
International Veterinary Student Association   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

jaundice
Yellow discoloration due to the accumulation of abnormal amounts of bilirubin. Jaundice is seen in non-haired parts of the body; white parts of the eyes, inside the mouth and ears and on the belly. Also called icterus.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

jejunum
The longest part of the small intestinal tract.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

Jen Chung
An acupunture technique also referred to as governing vessel 26 which causes sympathetic stimulation.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

joining
Putting the rams and ewes together for mating. Tupping is the same thing.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

jouleAbrev: J
A unit adopted by Systeme International (SI) for expressing energy. The Joule is more commonly used in Europe than in North America (4.184J = 1 calorie).   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

jugular
A large vein on the bottom surface of the neck that may be used to collect blood samples or to place catheters.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

juvenile cellulitis
Moist juvenile Pyoderma or Puppy strangles. Lesions of erythema, draining tracts, alopecia, and edema of the chin, lips, ears and eyelids seen in puppies less than 6 months old. Lesions are located on the muzzle and head, although abdominal, axillary and inguinal regions can be affected.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

juvenile cellulitis
Moist juvenile Pyoderma or Puppy strangles. Lesions of erythema, draining tracts, alopecia, and edema of the chin, lips, ears and eyelids seen in puppies less than 6 months old. Lesions are located on the muzzle and head, although abdominal, axillary and inguinal regions can be affected.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

juvenile cellulitis
An inflammatory disease of young (less than 4 months) puppies, characterized by inflammation and severe edema of the face, muzzle, periocular skin, and ears.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

juveniles
An immature weaned llama.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

KCS
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Dry eye.   (Modified: 10/12/1999)

kemp
Non-wool hair fibers in the fleece.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

keratic precipitates
Clusters of inflammatory cells on the back (endothelial surface) of the cornea.    (Modified: 5/23/2000)

keratin
A cystine rich protein produced by the epithelial cells.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

keratinization disorders
Cutaneous disorders characterized by scaling.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

keratitis
Inflammation of the clear part of the eye, the cornea.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

keratitis
Inflammation of the cornea.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

keratoconjunctivitis siccaAbrev: KCS
Reduced tear production: dry eye.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

keratoconjunctivitis sicca Abrev: KCS
Dry eye which may be a consequence of prior exposure and infection with canine distemper virus.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

keratotomy
Removal of part of the thickness of the cornea.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

ketoacidosisAbrev: DKA
A form of diabetes mellitus in which the pet has increased amounts of acids in the blood and is very sick.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

ketoconazole
Nizoral-Janssen. An oral treatment for dermatophytes.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

killed vaccine
A vaccine that contains antigen of the infectious agent that has been killed by chemical or physical means and does not replicate in the host.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

Koch’s postulates
Used in infectious diseases to determine if the parasite will cause disease. The traditional criteria used are as follows:The organism must be regularly isolated from cases of the disease. The organism must be grown in pure culture or free of the animal host. Such a pure culture should cause disease upon inoculation into susceptible animal. The same organisms must be re-isolated from the experimentally induced disease.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

lacrimal system
Consists of 2 glands that produce the aqueous tear film component, one in the dorsolateral orbit and one on the bulbar surface of the nictitans. Tears flow through the nasolacrimal duct to the nose   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

lactate
To produce milk   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

lactated ringer's solution
Lactated ringer's solution is one of the most common crystalloid solutions used in a small animal practice. It has an osmolality comparable to extracellular fluid, so it is considered an isotonic solution. Most lactated Ringer’s solution that are commercially available are marketed for people, therefore the actual osmolality of lactated Ringer’s solution is slightly less than the osmolality of canine and feline extracellular fluid/plasma. The sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations of lactated Ringer’s solution are comparable to extracellular fluid, although the sodium concentration is iso ionic to human extracellular fluid/plasma and is slightly lower than the sodium concentration of canine and feline extracellular fluid/plasma. Lactated Ringer’s solution contains lactate, which is converted by the liver to bicarbonate.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

lactation
The time a cow is producing milk.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

lactation curve
A graphic plot of days in milk vs. pounds of milk produced.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

lactogenic immunity
A form of local immunity in milk (post colostrum) that bathes the intestinal tract and prevents colonization by virulent bacteria and neutralized viruses passing through the gut.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

lagophthalmos
Inability to fully close the eyelids over the eyeball.   (Modified: 5/25/2000)

lamb bed
Uterus.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

laparotomy
A surgical procedure to open the abdominal (belly) cavity.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

larynx
The voicebox. The larynx closes during swallowing to keep food out of the airways.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

latency
A virus which remains hidden and does not cause disease but which may reactivate and cause clinical signs of disease at a later time.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

Lateral recumbant
Laying down on the side.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

lecithin
Phospholipids found widely in animals and plants,(e.g. egg yolk) that have emulsifying, wetting, and antioxidant properties.   (Modified: 2/14/2003)

lens
Structure in the eye which functions to transmit and focus incoming light rays directly on the retina; this is facilitated by accommodation - the subtle change in lens shape brought about by contraction and relaxation of the ciliary body; the accommodative ability of the lens is limited in domestic species.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

lens capsule
A clear elastic membrane surrounding the lens body.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

lens luxation
Primary or secondary displacement of the lens either anterior into pupil or anterior chamber or posterior into the vitreous chamber.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

lethargy
Malaise or inactivity.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

leukocytosis
High white blood cell count.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

leukopenia
Low white blood cell count.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

leukotriene
Substances derived from arachidonic acid in cell membranes that mediate allergic responses.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

levator palpebrae superioris
Muscle in the upper lid that elevates the upper eyelid. It is innervated by cranial nerve 3, the oculomotor nerve.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

libido
Sexual desire   (Modified: 9/1/2000)

libido
Sexual desire   (Modified: 10/2/2000)

libido
Sex drive.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

lichenification
Thickening of the skin.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

lichenification
Thickening, hardening and often hyperpigmentation of the skin.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

lidocaine
A drug used as a local anaesthetic and as an antiarrhythmic agent in treatment of certain cardiac arrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

limbic system
A group of brain structures which exert an important influence on the endocrine and autonomic motor system's and which influence (emotion) mood states.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

limbus
Junction between conjunctiva and cornea.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

linear immunoglobulin A dermatosis
Clinically presents as subcorneal pustules, epidermal collarettes, etc. generally truncal in distribution. Most often seen in the dachshund.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

lipid
A group of fats.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

lipids
Substances found in plant and animal tissues that are insoluble in water, but soluble in benzene or ether. Includes fats, oils, glycolipids, phosphoglycerides, waxes and steroids.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

lipoxygenaseAbrev: 5-LOX
5 lipoxygenase breaks down arachidonic acid to form the leukotrienes. The leukotrienes mediate activation and margination of neutrophils, altered vascular permeability, and promotion of gastric ulceration or degenerative joint disease.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

liquid protein supplementAbrev: LPS
A protein product usually containing molasses, urea, added vitamins and trace minerals; particularly useful in pasture feeding.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

loafing area
Area of farm, often associated with free stalls and milking barn where animals are free to exercise and move voluntarily.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

lochia
The vaginal discharge that appears post-delivery and in the bitch is green colored   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

lochia
Green colored post-partum discharge. The appearance of lochia before delivery indicates placental separation and impaired blood flow to the fetuses.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

loratidine
Claritan. An antihistamine.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

lufeneron
Program®,Novartis; Sentinel®,Novartis) is a benzoyl-phenylurea compound that inhibits chitin development. An insect growth regular.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

luteinising hormoneAbrev: LH
LH causes ovulation of ovarian follicles. LH is also believed to be involved in testicular descent into the scrotum.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

luteinizing hormone Abrev: LH
Causes ovulation of the follicles on the ovary.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

luteinizing hormone Abrev: LH
A hormone that causes ovulation of the follicles on the ovary.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

luteinizing hormone Abrev: LH
LH causes ovulation of ovarian follicles. LH is also believed to be involved in testicular descent into the scrotum.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

lymphoid organs
Organs that regulate the production and differentiation of lymphocytes. The main lymphoid organ are the salivary glands, the thymus, the spleen, and the bone marrow.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

lymphoma
A cancer of the lymph glands.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

lyophilized
Freeze dried   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

lyophilized
Freeze dried   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

MacKenzie Brush technique
This technique employs a sterile toothbrush to comb the hair coat of an animal suspected to be a carrier of dermatophytes. The bristles of the brush are then embedded or shaken over agar for culture.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

macro minerals
Minerals required in relatively large amounts by livestock. Includes calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) chlorine (Cl), sulfur (S) and sodium (Na).   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

macule
A circumscribed, flat (not raised or depressed) change in the color of the skin. Large macules are patches.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

magnetic resonance imageAbrev: MRI
A diagnostic technique that produces computerized images of internal body structures. MRI uses a large magnet to polarize hydrogen atoms in the tissues and then monitors the spinning energies within cells.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

magnetic resonance imagingAbrev: MRI
A very strong magnet is used to produce a 3 dimensional picture of a structure in the body. MRI is a good method to look inside the skull to see the brain.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

maiden ewe
A ewe lambing for the first time.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

maiden female
A female that has not been bred.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

maintenance phase
A phase of acute renal failure following initiation during which oliguria persists. Whether an ARF patient is oliguric or polyuric reflects the severity of insult which caused ARF. The majority of ARF dogs and cats become oliguric although some ARF patients are never oliguric. In those patients which can repair the renal damage, the oliguric phase lasts 1-2 weeks. Many animals die or are euthanized during the oliguric phase because of the poor prognosis. The most life-threatening consequences of the oliguric phase include hyperkalemia and overzealous fluid therapy resulting in overhydration.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

maintenance phase
A phase of acute renal failure following initiation during which oliguria persists. Whether an ARF patient is oliguric or polyuric reflects the severity of insult which caused ARF. The majority of ARF dogs and cats become oliguric although some ARF patients are never oliguric. In those patients which can repair the renal damage, the oliguric phase lasts 1-2 weeks. Many animals die or are euthanized during the oliguric phase because of the poor prognosis. The most life-threatening consequences of the oliguric phase include hyperkalemia and overzealous fluid therapy resulting in overhydration.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

maintenance solutions
Maintenance solutions are hypotonic compared to extracellular fluid. They have more potassium than extracellular fluid and less sodium than extracellular fluid. Maintenance solutions can be purchased or "created" from other cystalloid solutions.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

malassezia pachydermatis
A budding yeast considered part of the normal flora of the external ear canal. M ay become pathologic in certain situations. Formerly called Pityrosporum canis.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

malignancy
Cancer.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

malignant
A cancer that has high possibility for spread.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

mammary
Breast   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

mammary gland
The udder or breast.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

master problem listAbrev: MPL
A list of all the problems shown by a patient. The master problem list is dynamic and may expand over time.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

mastitis
Inflammation of the mammary gland caused by a bacterial agent.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

mature equivalent
A cow reaches maturity at 7 years of age (5th lactation) and thus records can be adjusted for what her production is expected to be at maturity. Allows comparison among herd mates at different ages.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

mature follicle
A large follicle on the ovary that secretes estrogens that make the female receptive and will be able to respond to mating by ovulating.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

meconium
The first stool or feces passed by the newborn.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

meconium
Fetal manure.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

medication administration record Abrev: MAR
A flow sheet charting medications given to a patient over time.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

medication administration record
A type of flow sheet on which one records drugs, doses and administrations.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

megaesophagus
A pathologically dilated esophagus.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

megestrol acetate
Ovaban®. A progestin marketed for estrus control in the dog and commonly used for managemnet of severe pruritus in the cat.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

Meibomian gland adenoma
A benign tumor of the Meibomian glands.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

meibomian glands
Glands located at the eyelid margins that secrete the lipid part of the tear film.   (Modified: 5/25/2000)

meibomian glands
Glands thatline the margins of the superior and inferior eyelids and produce part of the tear film.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

melangestrol acetateAbrev: MGA
A hormone added to diets to suppress estrus cycling and improve feed efficiency and growth rate in feedlot heifers.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

menace reflex
Used to assess vision and the ability to close the eyelids.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

meningitis
Inflammation of the meninges.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

metabolic reactions to food
An adverse reaction due to an effect of a substance upon the metabolism of the host, or as a result of defective metabolism of a nutrient by the host.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

metabolism
All of the chemical changes nutrients undergo following absorption from the digestive tract.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

metabolizable energyAbrev: ME
A measure of the useful energy in a feed. It represents that portion of the feed gross energy not lost in the feces, urine and belched gas.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

methoprene
Precor. An insect growth regulator. Present in rinses, sprays, collars, and household sprays/foggers. Recently added to a topical pour-on product containing fipronil (TopSpot Plus: Meriel).   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

metritis
Infection of the uterus. If the infection follows birthing, it is a postpartum metritis   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

micro minerals
Minor mineral elements required in very small amounts in the ration of animals. Includes manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), iodine (I) and fluorine (Fl).   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

microencapsulation:
A process whereby an insecticide is packaged into small microspheres (polyurea, nylon, etc). This process increases the LD50 and decreases biodegradation (extends duration of action). Currently, microencapsulated products include pyrethrins, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

micronutrient
Any ingredient, such as minerals, vitamins or drugs, added in very small amounts to a ration.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

microphthalmos
A small eye that has failed to develop properly.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

micturition
A synonym for urination.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

milbemycin oxime
Interceptor®-Novartis. A systemic treatment for demodectic mange.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

miliary
Small, resembling a seed.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

miliary dermatitis
A cutaneous reaction pattern characterized by the formation of multiple, circumscribed crusted papules.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

milk fat test
The percentage of fat in the milk. To be legal, whole milk must contain at least 3.25% fat.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

milk replacer
A substitute for feeding whole milk to calves, generally consisting of milk by-products and/or plant products and is mixed with water. The higher quality replacers have more milk products.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

milk replacer
A substitute for fresh whole milk, fortified with vitamins, minerals and sometimes antibiotics; used as a nutrient source for young animals.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

milking parlor
Barn where cows are milked. Two prevalent types: Herringbone and Parallel Parlors.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

mineral supplement
A rich source of one or more mineral elements.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

minimum data base
A minimum data base is the minimum amount of information collected for a medical record and includes: the chief complaint(s), history, patient signalment and physical examination.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

miosis
Small pupil.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

mismate
A drug given in attempt to prevent pregnancy.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

MLK
A multimodal analgesic administration technique combining lidocaine, ketamine and morphine in IV fluids such as LRS.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

modified live virusAbrev: MLV
A vaccine which contains an antigenic agent that has been altered chemically of physically so it stimulates cell-mediated and humoral response without evoking disease. The altered virus can still replicate in the host.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

modified live virusAbrev: MLV
A vaccine which contains a living virus that has been modified to attenuate its virulence.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

modified-live vaccines
An attenuated product that replicates and stimulates immunity, but they still are infectious in certain situations.   (Modified: 10/19/1999)

monoclonal
Originating from a single precursor cell.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

monoclonal
Originating from a single precursor cell.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

monoclonal antibody
The term used to describe a homologous Ig produced by a clone of B cells. This occurs naturally in neoplasia of B cells resulting in myeloma.   (Modified: 10/19/1999)

monoclonal antibody
A term used to describe a homologous Ig produced by a clone of B cells.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

monogastric
An animal having a single or simple stomach system. Example: swine.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

morphology
The appearance of sperm.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

morphology
The structure or appearance of something.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

motility
Progressive movement of sperm. A sign of health sperm.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

motivational-affective dimension of pain
This is the disruption of the feeling of well-being that results in suffering to the degree that it triggers an active response from the animal in response to pain.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

muco-purulent
A discharge that is a combination of pus and mucus.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

mucosa
The pink lining of an organ, such as the lining of the nose, mouth, vagina, penis.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

mucosal immunity
A form of local immunity on the body surfaces of the respiratory, intestinal and genital tracts.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

MÜeller cells
Cells responsible for support and nutrition of the retina.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

Muller's muscle
Smooth muscle in the eyelids which provides tone to the lids. Innervated by sympathetic fibers.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

multi-modal
Using more than one method.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

multivalent
A vaccine containing multiple antigens.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

multivalent
A vaccine containing multiple antigens.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

mupriocin
Bactoderm: Pfizer. Topical antibacterial ointment effective against staphylococci.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

murmur
An abnormal heart sound caused by abnormal blood flow.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

mutualistic
A relationship where both participants or parties benefit.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

mycobacteriosis
Feline leprosy caused by Mycobacterium lepraemurium.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

mycoplasma  
These are a group of bacteria that have lost their cell walls.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

mycotoxin
A substance produced by fungi and toxic to animals, e.g., vomitoxin, zearalenone and aflatoxin.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

mycotoxins
A toxin that is produced by a mold.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

mydriasis
Dilated pupil.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

myelitis
Inflammation or infection of the spinal cord.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

myelosuppression
A suppression of the bone marrow so that it does not produce normal numbers of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

myopathy
Inflammation of muscle.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

naloxone
An antagonist of morphine and other opiods.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

nasal
A synonym for the cavity behind the nose.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

nasolacrimal system
The route of drainage of tears from the eye to the nose.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

necrosis
Death of tissue.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

nematodes
Round worms.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

neonate
Refers to a young puppy or kitten shortly after birth.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

neoplasia
A synonym for cancer.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

neoplasia
Another term for cancer.   (Modified: 10/27/2000)

neoplasm
A lump or cancer. The word means "new growth".   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

nephrotoxic
A drug or chemical that causes damage to the cells of the kidneys.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

nephrotoxic
A drug or chemical that causes damage to the cells of the kidneys.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

nerve root signature
Lameness due to nerve root involvement   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

net energyAbrev: NE
The amount of feed energy actually available for animal maintenance and production. It represents the energy fraction in a feed left after fecal, urinary, gas and heat losses are deducted from the gross energy value of a feed.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

Neuralgia
Pain along the distribution of nerves.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

neuroleptanalgesic
A combination of a tranquilizer and an opiate which provides a synergistic effect for sedation and analgesia.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

neuroleptanalgesic
A combination of a tranquilizer and an opiate which provides a synergistic effect for sedation and analgesia.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

neuropathic pain
Pain originating in peripheal nerves and nerve roots.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

neurotransmitter
A substance released from a neuron of the central or peripheral nervous which excites or inhibit the target cell. Examples include: acetylcholine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, substance P, enkephalins, endorphins and serotonin.   (Modified: 6/18/2003)

neutral detergent fiberAbrev: NDF
The insoluble fraction containing all plant cell wall components left after boiling a feed sample in a neutral detergent solution. NDF is of low digestibility, but can be broken down somewhat by the digestive tract microorganisms. NDF value is used to predict ruminant feed intake.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

neutralizing antibody
A type of antibody that specifically blocks virus receptor sites on the virus preventing attachment to target cells in the body.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

neutrophil
The most common type of white blood cell observed in the blood stream.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

nictitans
The third eyelid which is a fold of tissue covered by conjunctiva and containing a lacrimal gland on the inner (bulbar) surface.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

nigropallidal encephalomalacia
A specific brain lesion seen in horses with yellow star thistle poisoning. The clinical sign is an inability to swallow.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

Nikolsky sign
The epidermis may be rubbed off with slight trauma. Named after a Russian dermatologist.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

NMDA receptor
Glutamate dependent N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)receptors. This type of receptor develops in the central nervous system in response to sustained pain and appears to be responsible for amplifying pain, and causing opioid tolerance.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

NOAH
Network of Animal Health (on-line veterinary community through the AVMA)   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

nociception
The detection of noxious stimuli by the nervous system.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

nociceptors
Peripheral receptors for pain which sense painful stimuli and transmit signals to the central nervous system where the sensation of pain is perceived.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

nodule
A circumscribed, solid, raised lesion that involves the deeper layesr of the skin.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

non steroidal anti inflammatory drug Abrev: NSAID
A drug such as aspirin that has anti inflammatory properties but that is not a corticosteroid.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

non-essential amino acids
Acids Amino acids that can be synthesized by the animal.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

non-protein nitrogenAbrev: NPN
Nitrogen not derived from true protein, but can be used by rumen microbes to build microbial protein.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

non-ruminant herbivore
Animals with simple stomachs able to digest roughages and other fibrous feeds because of the microbial population in their hindgut. Examples: horse, rabbit.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

non-structural carbohydratesAbrev: NSC
Simple carbohydrates, such as starches and sugars, stored inside the cell which serve as a cellular energy source. Non-structural carbohydrates are rapidly and easily digested by the animal.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

non-terrestrial rabies
Rabies in mammals that do not walk on the ground: bats.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

noncontagious Disease
A disease that cannot be spread between animals by direct contact.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

normal saline
0.9% sodium chloride. It is isotonic. It contains only sodium and chloride. Sodium chloride is used when blood sodium is decreased; such as in Addison’s disease because it has a higher concentration of sodium than does lactated Ringer’s. It may be used in lieu of lactated Ringer’s for rehydration in patients with lymphoma. It is used as a rehydration solution when a patient has an increased potassium or calcium, and the administration of additional calcium or potassium are contraindicated.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

Norwegian catheter
A catheter used to deposit semen during artificial insemination.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

Norwegian catheter
A stainless steel catheter protected by a plastic sheath used for transcervical intrauterine AI.   (Modified: 8/28/2000)

nosocomial
An infection contracted in the hospital.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

nosodes
Products prepared from infected tissues, infected discharges, or a pathogenic organism, which are processed and administered orally in attempt to "vaccinate" against an infectious agent.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

notobiotic environment
An environment with no germs whatsoever.   (Modified: 10/14/1999)

notobiotic environment
An environment with no germs whatsoever.   (Modified: 10/19/1999)

novel protein
A diet that contain proteins to which an animal has not previously been exposed(fed).   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

noxious stimulus
A stimulus that is potentially or actually damaging to tissue. A stimulus that is of adequate intensity to trigger a nociceptive reaction in an animal (the feeling of pain).   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

noxious stimulus
A stimulus that is potentially or actually damaging to tissue. A stimulus that is of adequate intensity to trigger a nociceptive reaction in an animal (the feeling of pain).   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

nuclear sclerosis
Compression of older lens fibers in the nucleus of the lens which results in light-scattering that clinically appears as a gray, homogenous, perfectly round area in the center of the lens which is bilaterally symmeterical; a normal aging change and does not interfere with vision or visualization of the fundus   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

nuclei (nucleus)
A structure located within a cell. Contains amongst other substances the genetic information of the cell.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

nucleus
Center of the lens.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

nucleus
A structure within a cell that contains among other things, genetic information.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

number-averaged molecular weight
The mean of the molecular weight of all the polymers in a solution. The number-averaged molecular weight tells you how quickly a fluid will exert an effect. The smaller the number-averaged molecular weight, the quicker the initial oncotic response.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

nutrient allowances
Recommendations of nutrient amounts necessary for maintenance, growth, gestation, lactation or performance that include a safety margin to account for variability in feeds and animals (e.g., environment, health, storage losses).   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

nutrient requirements
The minimal amounts of nutrients (energy, protein, minerals and vitamins) necessary to meet an animal's minimal needs for maintenance, growth, reproduction, lactation or work.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

nutrients
Feed components required for the maintenance, production and health of animals (water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, minerals and vitamins).   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

obesity
Overweight. Fat.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

objective information
Any information that can be quantified such as the size of a mass, a laboratory value or the grade of a heart mumur.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

obligate pathogen
Parasite that generally will cause disease – e.g. Brucella abortus (Brucellosis); Yersinia pestis (Plague); and Mycobacterium bovis (Tuberculosis).   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

obligate pathogen
Parasite that generally will cause disease   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

OFV
The Organization of Future Veterinarians (Pre Vet Club)   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

oliguria
A small volume of urine produced. In adult dogs and cats oliguria is defined as urine production of less than 0.5 ml/lb/hr (1 ml/kg/hr).   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

oliguria
An abnormally small amount of urine. Usually due to dehydration or acute kidney failure.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

oliguria
A small volume of urine produced. In adult dogs and cats oliguria is defined as urine production of less than 0.5 ml/lb/hr (1 ml/kg/hr).   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

omentum
A thin lace-like layer of tissue in the abdomen that partially covers the organs.   (Modified: 10/27/2000)

oncology
The study of cancer.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

oncotic
The pressure or pull of fluids created by colloids in solution. In blood, the oncotic pressure created by particles such as plasma proteins offsets the hydrostatic pressure created by the pumping of the heart that acts to drive fluid out of vessels into the extravascular space. The oncotic pressure of the plasma proteins holds fluid in the blood vessels.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

onychomycosis
Fungal infection of the nailbed.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

oocyte
egg, ova   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

opiod
Synthetic compounds with effects like opium but which are not derived from opium.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

opioid
Synthetic compounds with effects like opium but which are not derived from opium.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

opioid
Synthetic compounds with effects like opium but which are not derived from opium.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

opportunist
A bacteria that causes clinical disease in animals that are some how weakened and can not fight off the infection.   (Modified: 11/15/1999)

opportunistic pathogen
Parasites that are usually harmless commensals in their normal habitat, but can cause disease when they gain access to other body sites – e.g. Pasteurella haemolytica (pneumonia) and Staphylococcus aureus (mastitis). *Impairment of animal’s immune defense is the principle factor leading to opportunistic infections.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

opportunistic pathogen
Parasites that are usually harmless commensals in their normal habitat, but can cause disease when they gain access to other body sites   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

opsinizing antibody
A type of antibody that coats particles, such as bacteria to promote phagocytosis.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

optic nerve
Formed by axons of the ganglion cells of the retina.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

optic neuritis
Inflammation of the optic nerve; can be unilateral or bilateral   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

oral
Giving something by mouth or refering to the mouth.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

oral cavity
The mouth.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

oral transmission
Common route of animal-to-animal exposure due to contact with infected placenta, fetal fluids, milk.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

orbicularis oculi
Muscle which is responsible for eyelid closure and is innervated by cranial nerve 7.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

orbicularis oculi muscle
Muscle that encircles the eye and acts to closes the eye. It is innervated by cranial nerve 7, the facial nerve.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

orbital fascia
The connective tissue sheath that lines the orbit and envelopes all the structures within the orbit.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

orbital rim technique
A surgical technique that is no longer recommended for correction of prolapse of the gland of the third eyelid. This technique fixed the gland so it could no longer sweep across the eye speading tears.   (Modified: 5/25/2000)

orbitotomy
Surgical procedure to access the back of the globe for a biopsy.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

orchitis
Inflammation of the testicles.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

organ system
A group of organs that function together. For example the digestive system includes the esophagus, intestinal tract, liver and pancreas because they all function to absorb and digest food.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

os penis
A bone in the penis of a dog. This is a structure unique to the dog.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

osmolality
A property of fluids determined by the number and size of particles in the fluid. Fluids with large numbers of small particles have a high osmolality.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

osmolality
The concentration of osmotically active particles in a solution expressed in as osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

osmolarity
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in as osmoles of solute per liter of solution.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

osteomyelitis
An infectious disease of bone that is often of bacterial origin.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

otitis externa
Inflammation of the external ear canal   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

otoacariasis
Ear mites.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

Otobius megnini
The spinous ear tick may induce otitis in dogs and occasionally cats.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

otodectes cynotis
Ear mite.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

out side tie
When the male ejaculates with the bulbus glandis engorgement outside of the vagina. Females bred with an ‘out side tie’ usually don’t get pregnant.   (Modified: 8/28/2000)

ova
eggs   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

ova
An egg.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

ovarian bursa
A structure that surrounds the ovaries and collects eggs released from the ovary and channels those eggs to the uterus.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

ovariohysterectomyAbrev: OHE OVH
Surgical removal of the ovaries and uterus.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

ovariohysterectomyAbrev: OVH
The removal of the female reproductive organs. Spaying, spayed, (NOT SPADE).   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

ovary
The part of the female reproductive tract that produces eggs (ova) and female hormones.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

over the counter drugsAbrev: OTC
Drugs that can be purchased with out a prescription.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

ovine progressive pneumoniaAbrev: OPP
A chronic inflammatory disease of the lung leading to eventual suffocation.   (Modified: 2/14/2000)

ovulation
The process of releasing eggs (ova) from the ovary.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

ovulation
The release of an egg or eggs from the ovary.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

Oxyglobin
A red blood cell substitute made from polymerized bovine hemoglobin.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

P3
The third phalanx, or the third bone in a digit.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

packed cell volumeAbrev: PCV
The percentage of anticoagulated whole blood that is comprised of red blood cells. The remainder is plasma.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

packed RBC’s
Red blood cells from which much of the plasma has been removed. Used to provide RBCs to patients that may not be able to handle a large fluid load, for example patients with cardiac disease. Separation of cells from plasma also allows for early freezing of the plasma to preserve labile coagulation factors.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

pain
An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience which may cause tissue damage.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

palatability
The appeal and acceptability of feedstuffs. Affected by the taste, odour, texture and temperature of the feed.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

palliative treatment
Palliative treatment is given to patients with untreatable diseases in order to make them more comfortable. Includes a combination of supportive and symptomatic treatments.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

palpation
To examine something by touching and feeling it.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

palpebrae
Eyelids   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

palpebral
Pertaining to the eyelids.   (Modified: 5/25/2000)

palpebral fissure
The opening between the eyelids.   (Modified: 5/25/2000)

palpebral or blink reflex
Used to assess sensation and the ability to close the eyelids.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

panniculitis
Inflammation of subcutanious fat. Several proposed causes and is sterile in some breeds such as the Dachshund.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

pannus
Chronic superficial keratitis presumed to be immune-mediated.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

PAO2
The concentration of oxygen in the blood.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

papule
A small solid elevation of the skin. Larger lesions are called nodules or tumors and if flat, a plaque.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

parabasal cell
Epithelial cells exfoloiated from the vagina during proestrus. The cells are small and round with large and distinct nuclei. The total area of the cytoplasm of the parabasal cell is smaller than the nucleus.   (Modified: 9/1/2000)

parabasal cell
A small and round cell with a large and distinct nucleus. Parabasal cells, along with red blood cells (RBCs), are present during proestrus.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

paradoxical CSF acidosis
Paradoxical CSF acidosis is a condition caused by the administration of a large amount of bicarbonate to an acidotic patient, which will result in neurologic dysfunction. When one gives bicarbonate, the equation is shifted towards the left of the screen, towards the generation of CO2. CO2 is very diffusible, and will diffuse across the blood brain barrier and then shift the equation in the cerebral spinal fluid towards the right with a generation of hydrogen ions. Even though additional bicarbonate is being generated in the CNS, the neurons perceive the increase in hydrogen ions and malfunction. The bicarbonate that was administered IV cannot cross the blood brain barrier.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

parakeratosis
Abnormal process of cornification.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

paralysis
Abnormal function of nerves resulting in an inability to walk.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

paraphimosis
The inability to retract the penis back into the prepuce. Paraphimosis has been reported following semen collection.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

paraphimosis
Paraphimosis is when the penis is extruded from the prepuce and cannot be returned to its normal position. This may occur following breeding or sexual excitement such as being kenneled next to a bitch in heat, or by a traumatic fracture of the os penis.   (Modified: 9/8/2000)

parasiticide
A substance that kills parasites.   (Modified: 10/14/1999)

parasiticide
Kills parasites   (Modified: 7/19/1999)

parasitism
Denotes organisms which survive and persist on or within another living organism. The parasite usually does not harm the animal. The most successful parasites achieve a balance whereby both the parasite and host animal survive.   (Modified: 7/19/1999)

parasitism
Denotes organisms which survive and persist on or within another living organism. The parasite usually does not harm the animal. The most successful parasites achieve a balance whereby both the parasite and host animal survive. Among the parasites found on or within animals are bacteria, protozoans, fungi, mycoplasmas, rickettsia, and viruses.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

parasitism
A specific type of relationship between different organisms, where one organism benefits at the expense of another.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

parasympathomimetic effects
A drug that produces effects similar to the effects produced by stimulation of parasympathetic nerves.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

parity
to have given birth   (Modified: 6/14/2007)

paronychia
Inflammation of the nail fold.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

paroxysmal
The sudden onset of a symptom that reoccurs. For example paroxysmal seizures begin suddenly and occur more than once.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

partial parenteral nutrition Abrev: ppn
Providing energy and nutritional supplementation to a patient at 50 to 70% of the patient's nutritional needs.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

particle size
Measure of the diameter of granular feed materials and/or the length of roughage fragments. Particle size can affect mixing of feed ingredients and digestion rate.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

parturition
The process of giving birth.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

parturition
Giving birth.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

parturition
Birth.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

parturition
Giving birth.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

passive transfer
The transfer of antibodies from colostrum into the cria's blood.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

patent period
The parasites are producing eggs with in the host.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

pathogen
Organism that generally will cause disease   (Modified: 7/19/1999)

pathogen/pathogenicity
Capacity of parasite to produce disease.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

Pavletic
A surgical technique used to repair lid defects using skin from the lip.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

peak milk
Maximum daily milk yield during lactation. Good peak yield is 100-120 lbs and occurs between 60-90 days in milk.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

pediatric administration set
An adminstration set for intravenous fluid administration. The set has a spike to penetrate the container of fluids, a drip chamber and a long flexible tube that connects to the patient's catheter. The drip set drips 60 drops to deliver one ml of fluid. The drops form in the drip chamber through a rigid needle-like structure. This needle-in-the-drip chamber identifies a pediatric drip set.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

pediculosis
Infestation with lice.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

pediculosus
Lice infestation   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

PEG tubes
Feeding tubes placed percutaneously using endoscopic guidance.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

pelodera dermatitis
Rhabditic dermatitis. Larvae of the free living nematode, Pelodera strongyloides which penetrate the skin of animals.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

pemphigus erythematosus Abrev: PE
Possibly an abortive form of pemphigus foliaceus. The clinical presentation is as a facial dermatitis.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

pemphigus foliaceus Abrev: PF
The most common form of pemphigus recognized in the dog...also seen in the horse and other species.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

pemphigus vegetans Abrev: PVU
A benign variant of pemphigus vulgaris with two classifications: the Neumann type which may begin and end as PVU and Hallopeau which is thought to be more of a benign form.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

pen mating
A small number of females are penned with a male at regular intervals and are supervised during breeding.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

penetration
The penis entering the female reproductive tract.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

penis
The male organ used to deposit semen in the female.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

perianal
The region around the anus.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

pericardium
A very thin tissue surrounding the heart. Abnormal fluid can accumulate between the heart and the pericardial membrane causing pericardial effusion.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

perineal
The region around the anus.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

peripheral IV catheter
A catheter placed in a smaller vein in a limb (cephalic or saphenous). These catheters are relatively short in length.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

peritoneal
The abdominal or belly cavity.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

peritoneal cavity
The abdominal cavity between the viseral and parietal peritoneum.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

permethrin
Defend, Coopers) a topical antiparasitic agent.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

peroxidase-antiperoxidase staining
This technique uses an immunohistochemical procedure designed to demonstrate the presence of Ig or complement in a tissue section.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

persistent pupillary membranes Abrev: PPMs
Remnants of a blood vessels that once filled the anterior chamber and nourished the developing lens.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

PETA
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, an animal rights organization.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

pH
A measure of acidity or alkalinity. Values range from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most alkaline or basic). A pH value of 7.0 is neutral (neither acidic or alkaline).   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

phaeohyphomycoses
Subcutaneous nodules, granulomatous lesions and draining tracts caused by Pythium sp.(Hyphomyces sp.), Dreschlera sp and other species.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

phagocytosis
The process of capture and destruction of foreign material. The two leading cells in this process are neutrophils and macrophages (Phagocytes).   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

pharmacologic reactions to foods
An adverse reaction to as a result of a naturally derived or added chemical that produces a drug-like of pharmacologic effect.   (Modified: 2/2/2001)

pharynx
Back of the mouth. Throat.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

phimosis
The penis cannot be extruded from the prepuce. Phimosis may be congenital due to a small preputial orifice or a persistent frenulum. Acquired inflammation or neoplasia can reduce the size of preputial orifice or increase the size of the penis causing phimosis.   (Modified: 9/8/2000)

photoreceptor layer
Layer of the retina composed of the rods and cones.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

phthisis bulbi
An eye that has degenerated after injury.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

physiology
The science dealing with the functions of animals.   (Modified: 7/2/2001)

pigmentary keratitis
The accumulation of pigment in the cornea in response to inflammation.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

pinking-up
A lay term used to indicate pink nipples in a queen which indicates increased blood flow to the nipples under the influence of progesterone.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

pinna-femoral" reflex "
When the ear is rubbed, the dog scratches aggressively with the hind leg! Not a "real" reflex but is highly suggestive of scabies.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

pinnae
The flap of the ear.   (Modified: 2/14/2003)

pinnal dermatitis
Skin lesions on the ears.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

pituitary gland
A small gland located in the brain. Several hormones are produced in this gland.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

pizzle
Prepuce.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

placenta
After birth. An organ that allows for the mother to provide nutrition and remove wastes from the developing baby in the uterus.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

plans
In a problem oriented record there are diagnostic plans, therapeutic plans and plans to inform the client.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

plaque
A flat elevated lesion of the skin.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

plaque
A flat surfaced, raised skin lesion.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

plasma
The fluid component of anticoagulated whole blood.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

plasma
The clear part of blood that remains after blood is separated into cells and fluid before the blood clots. If the blood is allowed to clot then separated into cells and fluid, the fluid is then called serum.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

plasma cell pododermatis
Swelling and ulceration of the foot pads. Seen most frequently in cats.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

platelets
Small pieces of cells in the blood stream that help an animal stop bleeding when it has been injured.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

pluronic gel
Topical application of an analgesic.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

pneumonia
Inflammation of the lung.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

pneumothorax
The abnormal accumulation of air in the chest cavity outside the lungs.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

pocket technique
Surgical technique for replacing a prolapse of the gland of the third eyelid.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

poison
Any substance that can cause an adverse effect when introduced into a biological system (not acting mechanically).   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

poliosis
Whitening of the hair.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

pollakiuria
Frequent passage of small amounts of urine. Pollakiuria is indicative of diseases of the lower urinary tract and genital tract.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

polled
Breed where there has been a genetic selection for no horns. Some sheep breeds are horned in both sexes, in others only the males are horned and in yet others (the majority of breeds) neither sex is horned.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

poly
Means several or too much such as polydactyly means having too many toes.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

polyarthropathy
Inflammatory joint disease that involves multiple joints.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

polyclonal antibody
The term used to describe a mixture of Ig to a wide array of antigens.   (Modified: 10/19/1999)

polyclonal antibody
A term used to describe a mixture of Ig to a wide array of antigens.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

polycystic kidney disease Abrev: PKD
A disease in which kidney tissue is replaced by multiple cystic stuctures. There is an inherited form of polycystic kidney disease in Persian cats.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

polycystic kidney disease Abrev: PKD
A disease in which kidney tissue is replaced by multiple cystic stuctures. There is an inherited form of polycystic kidney disease in Persian cats.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

polycythemia
Polycythemia is an increased number of circulating RBC. Most animals with increased PCV have relative polycythemia due to hemoconcentration. Splenic contraction can increase PCV by 10 to 15%. Absolute polycythemia is an increased total hemoglobin/RBC mass with normal plasma volume. Absolute polycythemia can be a primary myeloproliferative disorder called polycythemia vera. The signs of polycythemia vera can include polyuria and polydipsia, bleeding from small capillary rupture, neurologic disturbances caused by increased viscosity of blood.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

polydipsia
Drinking large amounts of water.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

polydipsiaAbrev: PD
Drinking too much water.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

polymer
A molecule made of repeating units (monomers). For example starch is a polymer of glucose molecules.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

polymerase chain reactionAbrev: PCR
A technique to rapidly produce many copies of a fragment of DNA.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

polymyositis
Inflammation of several muscles at one time.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

polysaccharide
A carbohydrate containing a large number of sugar groups. Starch is an example of a polysaccharide.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

polyurethane
A type of plastic used to make, among other things, IV catheters.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

polyuriaAbrev: PU
Increased volume of urine.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

polyuriaAbrev: PU
Passing a large amount of urine.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

polyuriaAbrev: PU
Increased volume of urine.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

polyuria
Urinating large amounts of urine.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

polyvalent
A vaccine containing several antigens (multivalent).   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

polyvalent
A vaccine containing several antigens (multivalent).   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

post coital
After sex.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

post renal azotemia
An increase in nitrogen containing wastes in the blood due to an inability to excrete urine as a consequence of an obstruction to urine passage or to a ruptured bladder.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

post renal azotemia
An increase in nitrogen containing wastes in the blood due to an inability to excrete urine as a consequence of an obstruction to urine passage or to a ruptured bladder.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

post-partum
After parturition. After giving birth.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

posterior chamber
Space between the iris and lens.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

posterior synechia
Occurs when the inflamed iris sticks to the lens.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

postpartum
The period of time immediately following birth.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

postpartum
The period of time after giving birth.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

postprandial
The period of time immediately after eating.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

potato dextrose agar
A fungal growth media that promotes rapid sporulation making identification possible at an earlier time than when using standard culture media.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

povidine-iodine
Betadine. A topical antibaterial available as a shampoo or in solution.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

PPPP
People Pet Partnership Program   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

pre-anesthetic
A drug given before general anesthesia; usually a sedative or tranquilizer which is given to reduce apprehension and to allow the use of lower doses of the more potent anesthetic agents.   (Modified: 12/22/1999)

pre-breeding evaluation
Examination of potential breeding animals to assess their capability to produce offspring.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

pre-emptive analgesia
Refers to the prophylactic administration of analgesics to reduce the requirements for pain medication. Administration of an analgesic before an injury or surgery, lessens the amount of analgesic (or anesthetic) required later on.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

predicted transmitting abilityAbrev: PTA
Genetic merit of parent transmitted to its progeny.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

preemptive analgesia
The administration of analgesic drugs before the onset of a painful stimulus, administered to reduce the perception of pain.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

premature
Born too early.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

premix
A uniform mixture of one or more microingredients and a carrier, used to facilitate uniform dispersion of micronutrients into a larger mixture.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

prepuce
The skin sheath covering the penis.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

prepuce
The tissue that covers the penis. Sometimes called the sheath.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

prepuce
The skin sheath that covers the penis.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

prerenal azotemia
An increase in nitrogen containing waste products in the blood caused by reduced renal blood flow as a consequence of hypovolemia or dehydration. Untreated prerenal azotemia can progress to intrinsic renal disease.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

prerenal azotemia
An increase in nitrogen containing waste products in the blood caused by reduced renal blood flow as a consequence of hypovolemia or dehydration. Untreated prerenal azotemia can progress to intrinsic renal disease.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

prevalence
The proportion of sampled animals that display a condition of interest at a given point in time. It is a single measurement of each animal in a group. It is usually a static measure in which the time is short (1-7 days).   (Modified: 7/19/1999)

prevalence
The proportion of sampled animals that display a condition of interest at a given point in time. It is a single measurement of each animal in a group. It is usually a static measure in which the time is short (1-7 days).   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

primary abnormality
Morphologic abnormalities of sperm that occur while the sperm are being produced in the testes.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

primary closure
Suturing the raw edges of the wound together.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

primary oocyte
The immature egg as it is released from the ovary.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

primary oocyte
The form of an ova which has not released the first polar body and is inpenetrable by spermatozoa.   (Modified: 9/1/2000)

primary uterine inertia
Ineffective or absent uterine contractions during parturition. Primary uterine inertia should be considered when a bitch is not able to start uterine contractions. This condition occurs most often in older bitches and/or bitches with hypocalemia and/or hypoglycemia.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

prion
Infectious protein. Scrapie in sheep, Creutzfeldt Jakob disease in humans, and Bovine Spongifor Encephalopathy in cattle (Mad Cow Disease)are all caused by prions.   (Modified: 10/14/1999)

prions
Proteinaceous infectious particles associated with transmissible neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

probiotics
A live microbial feed supplement which beneficially affects the host animal. Claims include reduced early mortality, increased growth rate, improved feed conversion, egg quality and animal health.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

problem
A problem is anything that interferes with the patient's well being and requires further management or evaluation or anything that the owner is concerned about   (Modified: 10/19/2000)

problem
A problem is anything that interferes with the patient's well being and requires further management or evaluation.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

problem list
A list of what is wrong with a patient based on the information that is gathered from history, physical examination and the results of disgnostic tests.   (Modified: 10/19/2000)

problem oriented medical recordAbrev: POMR
A logical records system centered around the identification and resolution of the patient's problems.   (Modified: 10/19/2000)

problem oriented medical recordsAbrev: POMR
The POMR system is a logical system centered around the identification and resolution of the patient's problems. The problem oriented approach differs from other approaches in which a list of differential diagnoses are generated in the exam room, without giving much consideration to the possibility that not all the patient's problems are due to the same cause. Although the problem based approach is also intended to lead to a diagnosis, the problem based approach prevents the clinician from "jumping to a diagnosis" with tunnel vision and potentially overlooking important aspects of the patients disease(s).   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

problem specific data base
The minimum amount of information that is planned to be collected for patients with specific types of problems. For example, a chest radiograph may be recommened to be preformed on all patients that were hit by a car.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

problem-specific data base
Certain types of data bases may be defined for certain classes of patients. For example a data base may be defined based on the presenting problem and is called a Certain types of data bases may be defined for certain classes of patients. For example a data base may be defined based on the presenting problem and is called a "problem-specific data base".   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

procainamide
Antiarrhythmic used in treatment of ventricular arrhythmias.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

ProcalAmine®
A pre-made solution used in partial parenteral solution.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

proestrus
Proestrus is the beginning of the bitch’s ‘season’. The owner notices spotting or bleeding from the bitch’s vagina. The stage of the estrous cycle of the bitch during which she attracts males but will not allow the male to breed her.   (Modified: 9/8/2000)

proestrus
The part of the bitches season or cycle during which a bloody vaginal discharge is seen.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

progeny
Offspring.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

progesterone
A hormone that is released from the luteinized follicles of the ovaries.   (Modified: 8/29/2000)

progesterone Abrev: p4
A hormone made by luteinized follicles of the ovaries.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

progesterone
The hormone produced by the corpus luteum which maintains pregnancy   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

progress notes
A written description in a patient record that summarizes data; plans; treatment; rationelle for diagnostics and treatments; and the patient response to treatment.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

progress notes
Progress Notes are the method used to record information in a medical record. Progress notes are written in the form of SOAPs.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

prolapse
An organ or part of an organ that abnormally sticks out through an opening.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

prolapse
The abnormal position of an organ in which the organ pouches through an opening from which it does not normally protrude.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

proprioception
Maintenance of posture and movement through stimuli originating in the receptors in the joints, tendons, muscles, and labyrinth.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

proptosis
Bulging of the eye out of the socket.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

prostaglandinAbrev: PGF2alpha
A drug that among other actions, causes contraction of the uterus and is used in treatment of pyometra.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

prostaglandin analogs
DRugs used in the treatment of glaucoma. They cause extreme miosis and may have an influence on the unconventional outflow of aqueous. Lantoprost (trade name Xalatan) is available as a 0.005% topical solution.    (Modified: 5/23/2000)

prostaglandin F2 alpha
A hormone that destroys the corpus luteum which in turn causes progesterone to decrease.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

prostate
A accessory gland of the male that contributes to semen production.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

prostate
A sex gland of the dog which contributes liquid to semen.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

prosthesis
An artificial eye placed after enucleation for cosmetic purposes.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

protected fat
A fat that has been treated or combined with another substance to prevent breakdown in the rumen.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

protein
Naturally-occurring compounds containing nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and sometimes sulfur or phosphorus. Proteins are made up of complex combinations of amino acids and are essential for animal growth, production and reproduction.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

protein nitrogen unitsAbrev: PNU
Unit of stength for antigens used in intradermal skin testing. 100,000 PNU - 1 mg protein.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

protein supplement
A feed or mixture of feeds containing 20% or more protein. Examples: soybean meal, canola meal.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

prothrombin timeAbrev: PT
Measurement of clotting time of plasma in the presence of excess tissue thromboplastin. Factors measured are fibrinogen, prothrombin, and factors V, VII, and X.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

protozoa
Single-celled organisms.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

protozoans
Eukaryotic (true nucleus) organisms without chlorophyll and cell walls.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

proud flesh
Excessive granulation tissue, seen especially on wounds on horse's lower legs that are allowed to heal themselves.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

pruritis
Itchy   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

pruritus
Itchiness.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

pseudohyperparathyroidism
Pseudohyperparathyroidism causes hypercalcemia and most commonly occurs in patients with lymphoma or tumors of the apocrine anal sac. Pseudohyperparathyroidism has been reported associated with other tumor types.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

pseudomycetomas
Deep dermal or subcutaneous infections by dermatophytes. They present as nodules and draining lesions, that histologically are pyogranulomatous to granulomatous panniculitis. M. canis is the causative organism in the cat.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

pseudopregnancy
Giving the appearance of being pregnant when not really pregnant. Signs may include weight gain, enlarged abdomen, mammary gland enlargement, and nesting behavior. Pseudopregnancy is considered a normal occurrence in the bitch.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

pseudopregnancy
The development of clinical signs mimicing those of pregnancy in a non pregnant animal.   (Modified: 9/1/2000)

puberty
When the female starts to have some reproductive activity   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

pulseless electrical activityAbrev: PEA
A new term for electrical-mechanical disassociation in which an ECG shows electrical activity of the heart but there is no associated mechanical activity (heartbeat).   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

punctum
Holes in the edges of the eyelids through which tears enter the nasolacrimal ducts.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

pupillary light responseAbrev: PLR
The ability of the pupil to constrict in response to light.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

purulent
Containing pus.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

purulent
Pus discharge.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

pustule
A small pus filled raised lesion.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

pyelonephritis
A bacterial infection of the kidneys.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

pyelonephritis
A bacterial infection of the kidneys.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

pyoderma
Skin infection with bacteria. Pyodermas involve coagulase positive bacteria, most commonly Staphylococcus intermedius.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

pyometra
Infection of the uterus.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

pyometra
Pyometra is infection of the uterus that occurs during diestrus, 3-6 weeks after ovulation. It is commonly seen in bitches older than 5 years. Pyometra is also referred to as cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) which is the term descriptive of the morphological changes occurring in the uterus. Hormones, primarily progesterone which is secreted from the corpus lutei (CLs) of the ovaries during diestrus stimulate CEH.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

pyometra
The accumulation of pus inside the uterus.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

pyrexia
Elevated temperature, fever.   (Modified: 12/22/2000)

pyriproxyfen
An insect growth regulator. Available combined with permethrin in a spray for use on adult dogs and a fogger or spray for household treatment (Knockout: Virbac).   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

pyuria
White blood cells in the urine.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

queen
A female cat. When used as a verb, "to queen" describes a cat giving birth.   (Modified: 2/14/2000)

queening
The birthing process (parturition) in a cat.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

Quick Mix®
A pre-made solution used in partial parenteral solution.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

raddle
Marking crayon on breast of ram that will mark the rump of ewes that have been bred.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

radial Iimmunodiffusion Abrev: RID
A test used to evaluate whether the newborn has received antibodies in colostrum.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

radio-allergosorbent testAbrev: RAST
Test to measure specific serum IgE levels.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

radiograph
The picture taken using x-ray.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

radiograph
The image generated by an x-ray. Often the term x-ray is used incorrectly to refer to a radiograph.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

radioimmunoassay Abrev: RIA
A method used to measure the concentration of some hormones.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

ramp-up
A period of time during which effective blood levels of a drug are building up.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

ration
The 24-hour feed allowance for an individual animal.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

reaginic antibody
IgE   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

receptive
The female is accepting of being mounted and bred by a male.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

receptivity
When the female starts becoming receptive to the male and is ready to breed.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

recombinant vaccine
A vaccine containing antigen prepared using recombinant DNA techniques.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

recombinant vaccine
A vaccine containing antigen prepared using recombinant DNA techniques.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

rectus muscles
There are 4 rectus muscles that allow for movement of the globe: dorsal, ventral, lateral, and medial.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

redefined
A problem is redefined if a more specific lable can be applied. For example vomiting is redefined or updated to acute pancreatitis as laboratory results become available that support the diagnosis of pancreatitis.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

redefined problem
A patient's problem is redefined if it is updated to a higher level...for example, vomiting may be updated to uremia as the results of diagnostic tests become available and show an elevated BUN.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

registered cow
Cow that has a pedigree and is registered at the Breed Association. There are 6 major dairy breeds within associations: Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, Jersey, and Milking Shorthorn.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

regurgitation
Backward movement of food from the esophagus out the mouth.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

rehydration solution
A solution administered to a dehydrated animal to return it's hydration state to normal. Most dehydrated dogs and cats have isotonic dehydration and are rehydrated with iostonic, iso-ionic solutions such as LRS or RS.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

relaxin
A hormone which is detectable when a fertilized egg is implanted, which usually occurs around day 21 following fertilization. Marketed as ReproCHEK by Synbiotics.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

renal blood flow Abrev: RBF
The blood presented to the kidneys. The kidneys receive about 20 to 25% of cardiac output each minute. Renal blood flow is determined by blood volume, blood pressure and cardiac output. The kidneys can also autoregulate their blood flow within certain ranges of blood pressure.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

renal blood flow Abrev: RBF
The blood presented to the kidneys. The kidneys receive about 20 to 25% of cardiac output each minute. Renal blood flow is determined by blood volume, blood pressure and cardiac output. The kidneys can also autoregulate their blood flow within certain ranges of blood pressure.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

Repeat Breeder
A female which has failed to get pregnant after a known mating with a viable male after an apparently normal oestrus.   (Modified: 7/20/2007)

replacement
A calf kept and/or raised at the dairy as a future replacement for a cow in the herd. Replacement rate should average between 25%-33% of the herd/year.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

replacement females
New females that have recently been introduced to a herd.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

reproductive cycle
Events that happen in the female such as ovulation, hormone production, receptivity, etc. In camelids the cycle does not follow regular time periods as it does in horses or cattle.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

reservoir
Where a disease causing organism lives and multiplies. Therefore the reservoir may not be the source of the organism, that is only where it lives and multiplies.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

reservoirs of the contagious mastitis
The cow herself, humans, flies, and other.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

resolved
Problems are resolved if they no longer exist either because they were treated or reolved spontaneously with the passing of time.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

resolved problem
A patient's problem is resolved if it no longer exists either due to the intervention of the veterinarian or Mother Nature's.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

respiratory transmission
The most common route of human exposure in countries where infection is controlled in animals and where there is pasteurization of milk.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

resting membrane potentialAbrev: RMP
The electrical charge of resting myocardial cells. Normally the RMP is -90 mV. Hyperkalemia elevates the RMP to a less negative state.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

resuscitative fluid
A fluid used in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in an attempt to restore circulation.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

reticular activating formation
A collection of neurons in the brain that mediates many aspects of consciousness.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

retinal dysplasia
A congenital anomalous development of the retina.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

retinoids
Synthetic derivatives of vitamin A.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

retractor bulbi muscle
The muscle that pulls the eyeball back into the orbit.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

retrobulbar
Located behind the globe.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

retropulsion
Pushing on the orbit to evaluate the ability to compress the soft tissue structures behind the orbit.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

Revolution
Generic name is Selemectin.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

ringer's solution
Ringer’s solution does not contain lactate. It contains a higher concentration of chloride compared to lactated Ringer’s solution. Ringer’s solution is considered an acidifying solution. This does not mean that it can cause metabolic acidosis, but it can assist a patient who has a metabolic alkalosis correct their own acid base abnormality.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

rolling herd
The most recent 12 month herd mild production average.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

roughage
A feed which has a relatively high crude fiber content.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

roughage
A term used to describe a feed high in fibre (greater than 18% crude fibre). Roughage tends to be bulky, coarse, and low in energy. Examples: hay, silage, straw.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

route of administration
The way a drug is administered to an animal; i.e. orally, intramuscularly, intravenously.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

route of infection
The manner by which an infectious agent gains access to the animal.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

rule outAbrev: R/O
A possible cause for a patient's problem. Also called a differential diagnosis.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

rule-outsAbrev: R/O
Rule-outs are also known as differential diagnoses and are possible causes for the problems displayed by a patient. For example, kidney failure is one rule out (or possible cause) for polyuria in a dog or cat.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

ruminant
A cud-chewing animal having four stomach compartments. The rumen (first stomach), is a major site of microbial fermentation of feeds permitting breakdown of fibre. Examples: cattle, sheep, goats.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

Sabouraud's dextrose agar
The standard media for fungal culture.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

sagittal
Longitudinal view   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

Salmonella DT104
An enteric bacteria that causes bloody diarrhea, has resistence genes in its genome, and is zoonotic.   (Modified: 11/15/1999)

SALTAbrev: ALT
Serum alanine aminotransferase (SALT)or alanine aminotransferase (ALT). An enzyme found in hepatocytes (liver cells) released with cellular injury including cellular hypoxia.   (Modified: 9/16/2003)

sanitizer
A disinfectant of low toxicity used to reduce microbial contamination of food handling equipment.   (Modified: 10/14/1999)

sanitizer
Disinfectant of low toxicity used to reduce microbial contamination of food handling equipment   (Modified: 7/19/1999)

SAP
Serum alkaline phosphatase. Also known as AP. An enzyme found in many tissues but most often elevated in serum in response to cholestasis and bone remodeling and glucocorticoid excess.   (Modified: 9/16/2003)

saprophytism
Organisms survive and persist in non-living or decaying organic matter. They are not usually parasitic, although may cause disease under certain circumstances   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

saprophytism
Organisms survive and persist in non-living or decaying organic matter. They are not usually parasitic, although may cause disease under certain circumstances – e.g. Aspergillus fumigatus and bovine abortion (fungal abortion).   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

sarcoid
A tumor that occasionally occurs on the eyelids of horses.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

sarcoma
Cancer originating from fibrous tissues.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

sarcoptes scabiei var. canis
The etiological agent of scabies.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

saturated fat
A completely hydrogenated fat. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature. Example: animal tallow.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

SAVMA
Student American Veterinary Medical Association (a national group)   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

SCAVMA
Student Chapter of the American Veterinary Medical Association (local group)   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

Schiotz tonometer
An indentation tonometer used to measure intraocular pressure based on how readily the cornea is "indented" Schiotz tonometer indentation tonometer - IOP is calculated from how readily the cornea is "indented"   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

Schirmer tear test
A test of the ability to produce tears.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

sclera
Dense connective tissue of the eye which is the site of attachment for the extraocular muscles.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

sclera
The white part of the eye beneath the upper eyelid. The sclera normally has small blood vessels running across the surface.   (Modified: 10/22/1999)

scours
The discharge of more fluid than normal fecal matter from the bowel; often more frequently than normal.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

screenings
Small, imperfect kernels, broken grains, hulls, weed seeds and other foreign material obtained from the cleaning of grain.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

scrotal hernia
The abnormal protrusion of part of an organ or tissue through the structures that normally contain it. An animal may be born with a hernia in which case it is congenital or it can get it can be acquired after birth.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

scrotum
The skin sac that covers the testes.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

scrotum
The skin that surrounds the testes.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

season
A lay term used to refer to the beginning of proestrus.   (Modified: 9/1/2000)

seasonally polyestrous
Estrous cycles which are under the influence of light. The queen is a seasonally polyestrous animal.   (Modified: 9/1/2000)

seborrhea
Increased scaling of the skin with or without increased sebum production.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

seborrhea, primary
Metabolic seborrhea. Scaling caused by endocrine disorders, aberrations in lipid availability, nutritional imbalances.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

seborrhea, secondary
Scaling due to allergies, ectoparasite infestation, mycotic infections, immune-mediated disease.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

sebum
Formed of diester waxes, cholesterol and free fatty acids in sebaceous glands, which empty into the hair follicle or onto the skin.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

secondary abnormality
Morphologic abnormalities of sperm that develop while sperm are moving through the epididymus or occur as a result of handling sperm.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

secondary closure
Do not suture the wound and let the tissue granulate in.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

secondary oocyte
The egg after it has matured and is ready to be fertilized.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

secondary oocyte
An ovum that has released its polar body and is ready to be penetrated by sperm.   (Modified: 9/1/2000)

secondary uterine inertia
Ineffective or absent uterine contractions during parturition. Secondary uterine inertia may occur when a bitch is tired or exhausted from pushing to deliver and "gives-up" on delivering puppies.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

seizure
Another term for convulsions.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

selemectin
Trade name is Revolution, marketed by Pfizer. A neurotoxin recommended as a monthly topical "pour'on" insecticide. This product is also labeled for use as against scabies, ear mites, internal parasites, and for tick control.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

semen
The composite fluid ejaculated which includes sperm and supporting fluids.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

semen
The fluid that contains sperm and fluid from the testes, prostate and other acessory sex glands.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

semen extender
A substance added to semen to provide an appropriate environment and energy for the sperm to survive in vitro.   (Modified: 8/28/2000)

seminal plasma
Fluid produced by the prostate gland which is part of semen.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

seminal plasma
The fluid portion of semen which is produced by the prostate gland.   (Modified: 10/27/2000)

seminal vesicles
Accessory sex glands in the male..   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

seminiferous tubules
The location in the testes in which sperm are produced.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

seminoma
A type of cancer of the testes.   (Modified: 10/27/2000)

seminoma
A testicular tumor that usually displays benign biologic behavior.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

semipermeable membrane
A membrane that allows water and small molecules to pass through it but prevents passage of large molecules such as colloids. The peritoneal membrane lining the abdominal cavity is an example of a semipermeable membrane.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

senile iris atrophy
Atrophy of the constrictor muscle: poor pupillary light reflexes but normal vision. Pupil margin looks a bit moth-eaten and irregular.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

sensible fluid losses
Sensible fluid losses are those that can be easily detected and measured. Sensible losses can occur through the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts. The loss of fluid through the GI tract is negligible in healthy dogs and cats but can be substantial through vomiting or diarrhea. In the adult, healthy dog or cat, sensible loss is through urine and is about 12-20 ml/lb/day. Loss of water through the urinary and GI tracts is usually accompanied by loss of electrolytes (in both health and disease) (an isotonic loss).   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

sensitizing soup
Chemical mediators released by cells following tissue damage and inflammation that individually or collectively results in pain sensitivity.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

sensory-discriminative dimension of pain
This dimension of pain gives the individual information about the location, onset, intensity, type and duration of pain.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

sepsis
The presence of infectious organisms in the blood.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

septic arthritis
A bacterial infection in a joint causing inflammation.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

seroconversion
A change in immune status from having no measurable antibodies against an infectious agent to development of measurable antibodies in the blood.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

seroprevalence
The frequency of occurance of exposure to an infectious agent based on measuring antibodies to the agent in the blood.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

serotype
Strains of a virus.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

sertoli cell
Cells in the testicle which support the testosterone-producing cells. These cells can produce the female hormone, estrogen.   (Modified: 10/27/2000)

sertoli cell tumor
A type of testicular cancer that may result in a male showing signs of feminization.   (Modified: 10/27/2000)

sertoli cell tumor
A testicular tumor that may produce estrogens and cause signs of feminization in the male dog.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

serum
The fluid component of blood after the blood has clotted.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

serum
The clear part of blood that remains after blood is allowed to clot. Very similar to plasma except that plasma is the fluid part of blood when blood is separated into cells and fluid before the blood clots.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

serum alanine aminotransferase Abrev: SALT (ALT)
Also known as alanine aminotransferase (ALT). An enzyme found in hepatocytes (liver cells) released with cellular injury including cellular hypoxia.   (Modified: 9/16/2003)

serum alkaline phosphatase Abrev: SAP (AP)
Also known as alkaline phosphatase (AP). An enzyme found in many tissues but most often elevated in serum in response to cholestasis, bone remodeling or glucocorticoid excess.   (Modified: 9/16/2003)

service/conception
Number of AI or natural services needed to achieve pregnancy (conception). Goal is 2-2.5 Svc/con.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

shearing
Mechanical removal of fleece. Done yearly and in some breeds more frequently.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

shipping fever
A complex seen in cattle, especially feedlot cattle, where the stress of shipping weakens their immune system and they develop viral and then oportunistic bacterial infections.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

signalment
This is the physical description of the animal including species, breed, sex, neuter status, age and color and/or markings.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

signalment
The description of the patient including age, breed and sex.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

silage
Pickled forage, a feed that is harvested at 30-60% dry matter and allowed to ferment as a means of preservation.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

silage additives
Substances added during the ensiling process to enhance the correct and rapid fermentation of the feed.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

silicone
A polymer of alternating oxygen and silicon atoms combined with other organic groups. Catheters made of silicone are relatively inert and have less stimulation of clot formation compared to other materials.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

simultaneous ventilation compression CPR
For every compression, you give the patient a simultaneous ventilation. The ventilatory rate is very high and matches the chest compression rate.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

sire
The breeding male, also called a stud.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

skin turgor
Skin elasticity. Skin turgor is used to assess hydration.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

slit-lamp biomicroscopy
Provides magnification and depth for examination of the eyelids, puncta, conjunctiva, sclera, cornea, anterior chamber, iris, lens, and anterior vitreous.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

SOAP
SOAP's are progress notes recorded in a medical record.
S = subjective information
O = objective information
A = assessment of information
P = plans for diagnoses, treatment or client information   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

SOAP
A progress report in a patient record (subjective, objective, assessment and plans).   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

soluble intake proteinAbrev: SIP
Portion of the protein intake that is completely soluble in rumen fluid and rapidly utilized by bacteria. Soluble protein forms part (or all) of the degradable intake protein (DIP) value of a feed.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

somatic
Relating to the wall of the body as distinguished from the viscera.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

somatic cell count
An indicator of mastitis, the accumulation of cells, chiefly leukocytes, in the milk in response to an antigen. Goal: greater than 95% of all cows with counts less than 200,000 cells/ml milk, and a bulk tank (herd average) count of <200,000 cells/ml.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

somatic cell count:
Leukocytes and epithelial cells in milk. Count will increase with mastitis.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

somatosensory
Sensory signals from tissues. Somatic usually refers to input from body tissue other than viscera.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

source-oriented record
A record keeping system in which all data of a similar type are clustered together, e.g. all laboratory reports and together.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

specific pathogen free pigs Abrev: SPF pigs
The pigs are taken surgically at birth and reared in a pig free environment so they have no contact with other pigs and no opportunity to catch a disease.   (Modified: 11/10/1999)

specific treatment
Treatment that will eliminate or modify the primary cause of a disease process. For example, surgical removal of a tumor.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

sperm
Spermatozoa. The male structure that fertilizes an egg.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

spermatogenesis
Formation of sperm in the testes.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

spermatozoa
Sperm. The male structure that fertilizes an egg.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

sphincter
A structure that closes and opens.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

spillover
What spillover means is that rabies viral variant isolated from a rabid animal will be the variant from the terrestrial wildlife reservoir in that area. That is why if you have a rabid raccoon in Montana it will be spill over from a skunk because that is the only wildlife reservoir that maintains the virus in that area.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

spinoreticular
A tract in the spinal cord leading to behavioral responses that help the individual determine whether a painful input is tolerable or not. Also conveys visceral pain.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

spinothalamic
A tract in the spinal cord which conveys impulses associated with pain and temperature sensation, and tactile sensation. Somatic pain pathway.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

spitting off
When the female is no longer receptive to the male indicating she has ovulated.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

splay-legged
A condition in newborn pigs that involves a muscle weakness so they are unable to stand and bear their weight.   (Modified: 11/15/1999)

spleen
An organ in the abdomen that stores cells. The spleen can be removed if it is diseased.   (Modified: 10/22/1999)

Sporotrichosis
Cutaneous nodules; draining, ulcerative tracts caused by Sporothrix schenckii. Lesions may be focal or disseminated.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

Springer or Fresh
Cow/heifer that has recently calved.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

Stades procedure
A surgical procedure for correcting upper eyelid entropion.   (Modified: 5/25/2000)

Stades procedure
A surgical procedure for correcting upper eyelid entropion.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

Stage 1
This is the stage of cervical dilation and lasts 6-8 hrs in the bitch and queen.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

Stage 2
This is the stage of fetal expulsion in the labor of a bitch or queen and lasts 3-6 hrs.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

Stage 3
This is the stage of placental expulsion in the labor of a bitch or queen and lasts 5-15 min.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

stanchion barn
Stall barn where cows are chained within their stalls.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

Stand for mating
Refers to a female's stance when in heat and willing to accept breeding from a male.   (Modified: 7/20/2007)

standard drip sets
An adminstration set for intravenous fluid administration. The set has a spike to penetrate the container of fluids, a drip chamber and a long flexible tube that connects to the patient's catheter. The end of the drip set vary by manufacturer, requiring anywhere from 10-20 drops to comprise a milliliter.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

staple
A group of wool fibers.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

stenosis
A narrowing of a tubular structure. For example the intestine may stricture interfering with movement of food through the intestine.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

sterilize
To destroy all microorganisms; usually not possible with chemical disinfectants, and requires physical disinfection.   (Modified: 10/14/1999)

sterilize
Destroy all microorganisms; usually not possible with chemical disinfectants, and requires physical disinfection   (Modified: 7/19/1999)

sternal
Laying down on the chest and belly.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

stomatitis
Inflammation of the mouth including the gums and tongue.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

storage diseases
Diseases in which cells of the body accumulate (store) a substance that causes the cells to malfunction. For example cells may store too much fat or sugar.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

stranguria
Straining to urinate.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

strategic worming
Worming during the times of year that infection is most likely to occur.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

stratum corneum
The outer layer of skin.   (Modified: 2/14/2003)

stria
Streaks in the cornea caused by the cornea stretching from increased pressure.   (Modified: 5/23/2000)

stricture
Similar to stenosis. Narrowing of a tubular structure.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

strip
To remove residual milk from the mammary gland (udder).   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

stroma
Thickest layer of the cornea.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

structural carbohydrates
Complex carbohydrates (fiber)including cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and pectin that form the plant cell wall. Measured in the laboratory as neutral detergent fibre (NDF).   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

stud
The breeding male also called a sire.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

subalbinotic
Animals with blue irises.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

subcorneal
Just under the stratum corneum.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

subcorneal pustular dermatosisAbrev: SPD
A rare condition characterized by the formation of pustules which are subcorneal in location.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

subcutaneousAbrev: SC or SQ
Giving a drug, fluid or vaccine under the skin.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

subjective information
Information told to the physician by a patient. Not relavent to veterinary patients.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

subunit vaccine
A vaccine that use parts of a pathogen rather than the whole organism.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

Sudden Acquired Retinal Degeneration SyndromeAbrev: SARDS
Acute (2 days-2 weeks) degeneration of the photoreceptors followed by the other retinal layers affecting both eyes simultaneously.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome Abrev: SARDS
An acute degeneration of the photoreceptors folled by the other retinal layers affecting both eyes simultaneously.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

suffering
An unpleasant emotional state, but the external expression of suffering through behavior is distress.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

superficial cells
Epithelial cells from the vagina which are also called cornified or anucleated cellsa and are the largest of the epithelial cells present during estrus. If 80-90% of the cells in the smear are superficial cells that can be used as an indication to start breeding.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

superficial cells
Epithelial cells exfoliated from the vagina during estrus. They are also called cornified or anucleated cells and are the largest of the epithelial cells present during estrus. The nuclei of these cells appear faded or absent. These cells stain lightly, may appear multi-layered, and with folded borders. If 80-90% of the cells in the smear are superficial cells that can be used as an indication to start breeding.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

Superficial intermediate cells
Epithelial cells exfoliated from the vagina during late proestrus to early estrus. They are larger than parabasal cells and have small nuclei and irregular/folded borders.   (Modified: 9/1/2000)

superficial intermediate cells
Epithelial cells from the vagina that are larger than parabasal cells. Large number of these cells are observed during late proestrus to early estrus.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

supplement
Feed or feed mixtures rich in one or more of protein, energy, vitamins, minerals or antibiotics. Combined with other feeds to produce a more complete feed.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

supportive treatment
supportive treatment corrects or modifies abnormalities that occur secondary to a disease process. For example fluid and electrolyte therapy for a patient with hypoadrenocorticism.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

SVECCS
Society for Veterinary Emergency Medicine and Critical Care   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

sweet feed
A commercial feed sweetened with molasses to improve palatability.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

symbiosis
Parasitic state in which the parasite and animal survive in a beneficial relationship – e.g. bacteria within the rumen.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

symbiosis
Parasitic state in which the parasite and animal survive in a beneficial relationship   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

symblepharon
Adherence of the conjunctiva to the cornea.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

symptomatic treatment
symptomatic treatment eliminates or suppresses clinical signs without affecting or knowing the underlying cause of the sign. For example antiemetics to suppress vomiting.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

synapse
The location at which a nerve impulse is transmitted from one neuron to another.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

synapse
The location at which a nerve impulse is transmitted from one neuron to another.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

synergistic
Two or more drugs which enhance the effectiveness of each other.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

synovial fluid
Fluid made by the synovial cells that lubricates joints .   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

systemic
Body-wide process (e.g. systemic infection).   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

systemic lupus erythematosusAbrev: SLE
A multisystemic autoimmune disorder.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

T cell
A population of lymphocytes that moderates cell mediated immunity.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

T cytotoxic cellsAbrev: TC cells
Their function is to use perforins and cytotoxins to destroy target cells that are carrying foreign proteins on their surface.   (Modified: 10/19/1999)

T-cell
This population has been trafficked through the thymus and is important in cellular immunity.   (Modified: 10/19/1999)

tachycardia
An abnormally rapid heart rate.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

Tacrolimus
Protopic® -Fujisama. A compound with similar actions as cyclosporine (inhibition of IL-2 through inhibition of calcineurin). Available as a topical ointment (0.1%)   (Modified: 12/31/2002)

tail enders
Cow producing low levels of milk at the end of their lactation.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

TAN-SAL
Tannic acid solution used as a topical drying agent.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

tapetum
A highly reflective layer located in the dorsal half of the choroid in most domestic species (pig and llama being exceptions).   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

tarsal plate
A plate of cartilage that gives rigidity to the eye.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

tarsorrhaphy
Suturing together of the eyelid margins partially or totally to make the palpebral fissue smaller or to protect the cornea.   (Modified: 5/25/2000)

teaser
A bitch used to get a male dog sexually aroused in order to collect semen.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

teaser bitch
A bitch which is used to excite a male dog in order to collect a semen sample for semen analysis or artificial insemination.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

teaser ram
A ram incapable of inseminating the ewe (eg vasectomized).   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

teat orifice
The opening at the bottom of the teat where milk exits. This opening serves as a potential route for bacteria to enter the teat.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

telogen
The resting phase of the hair cycle before it is shed.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

terrestrial rabies
Rabies in terrestrial mammals, mammals that walk on the ground like a skunk or raccoon.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

tertiary hyperparathyroidism
Tertiary hyperparathyroidism is a relatively uncommon event occurring in some chronic renal failure patients, which may result in a moderate increase in calcium.   (Modified: 11/30/1999)

testes
Structures that produce sperm.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

testicles
Same as testes. An organ that produces sperm.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

testicular degeneration
The deterioration of the testicular tissue with resultant decrease in function.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

testicular hypoplasia
Testicles that are smaller than normal.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

testosterone
The male sex hormone produced by the testes.   (Modified: 10/27/2000)

thoracic pump theory
CPR performed in patients over 7 kg positioned in dorsal recumbency likely uses the thoracic pump theory which says that when the chest is compressed, the heart underneath the chest wall is not directly compressed but rather the chest compression is causing an increase in intrathoracic pressure. The increase in intrathoracic pressure collapses veins, prevents retrograde blood flow back towards the abdomen and compresses arteries which pushes blood forward towards the heart and brain. The heart is just acting as a passive conduit and doesn't change shape very much at all.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

thorax
Another term for chest.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

three-in-one formula
A formula for partial parenteral nutrition that can be tailored to the individual patients by compounding the formula. Most, if not all, commercial solutions provide amino acids and dextrose but don't typically provide lipids.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

thrombocytopenia
Low platelet count.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

thromboemboli
A blood clot which forms in a blood vessel, then breaks loose into circulation and may lodge and obstruct other blood vessels.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

thrombophlebitis
Inflammation of a vein associated with thrombus formation. The thrombus may break loose as a thromboembolis and then plug other blood vessels.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

thrombosis
The formation of blood clots in blood vessels.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

titer
The reciprocal of the highest dilution of serum that gives a reaction in an immunological test.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

titer
The reciprocal of the highest dilution of serum that gives a reaction in an immunological test.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

TNTC
Too numerous to count. Used primarily to describe the number of red or white cells observed per high power field when performing a urinalysis.   (Modified: 9/16/2003)

tolerance
Specific unresponsiveness to a given antigen   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

tolerance levels
1/1000th the level where birth defects were induced by a drug and 1/100th the level where other side effects were induced.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

tonometry
Measuring pressure in the eyeball.   (Modified: 5/23/2000)

Tonopen tonometer
An applanation tonometer used to caloculate IOP from the force required to flatten (applanate) the cornea.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

torsion
Twisting of a body part. For example, a retained testicle may twist, cutting off its blood supply.   (Modified: 10/27/2000)

total body water
Total body water accounts for ~ 60 to 70% of an animal's body weight. Total body water is distributed across interconnected compartments. 2/3 of total body water is located within cells and 1/3 in extracellular locations including plasma and interstitial locations   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

total digestible nutrientsAbrev: TDN
A term describing the energy value of feedstuffs, comparable to DE in accuracy. TDN over- estimates the energy value of roughages in comparison to grains.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

total mixed ration Abrev: TMR
A ration where all feed ingredients (mineral, vitamins, grains) are mixed in a nutritionally balanced ration.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

total mixed rationAbrev: TMR
All ration ingredients, including roughages, mixed mechanically to provide one homogenous mixture. TMRs are used in large dairy or beef feedlot operations.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

total parenteral nutritionAbrev: TPN
Providing 100% of a patient's caloric needs by the intravenous route through a central catheter.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

total proteinAbrev: TP
All the proteins in the blood stream including albumin, immunoglobulins and other globulins. TP can be measured with a refractometer or by chemical methods.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

toxemia
Capacity of parasite to produce toxins (endotoxins or exotoxins). Be cautious about differentiating this from a toxic substance, such as lead poisoning from old batteries, or toxic plants.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

toxic epidermal necrolysisAbrev: TEN
Cutaneous lesions with 2 forms in humans: Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) which is seen generally in children and is caused by the elaboration of an exfoliating toxin from S. aureus. TEN (Lyell's disease) is the adult form which is identical clinically, but thought to be caused by a different factor.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

toxicity
Potency; amount of a poison that will cause an adverse effect.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

toxicology
The study of poisons (toxicants).   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

toxins
Poisons either from the environment or wastes accumulating in the blood due to organ failure. E.G. uremic wastes are those toxins that accumulate in the blood when the kidneys fail.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

toxoid
Inactivated toxin from a particular bacteria that is injected and generates antibodys to the toxin.   (Modified: 10/19/1999)

TPR
A common medical abbreviation for temperature, pulse, and respiration.   (Modified: 10/21/1999)

trachea
A synonym for the windpipe.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

tranquilizer
A drug that calms an animal without affecting consciousness.   (Modified: 2/13/2003)

tranquilizer
A drug that calms an animal without affecting consciousness.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

transabdominal ultrasonography
Passing sound waves through the belly to see internal organs and structures.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

transdermal
Absorption of a drug across the intact skin.   (Modified: 2/14/2003)

transitional cell carcinomaAbrev: TCC
A tumor originating from the transitional epithelium lining the urinary tract. The most common location for development of transitional cell carcinoma tumors is in the trigone of the urinary bladder.   (Modified: 9/27/1999)

transmissibility/contagiousness
Capacity of parasite to spread between animals – e.g. Salmonella dublin is regard as highly contagious between heifers and calves via feces.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

transplacental
Transplacental means crossing the placenta. The placenta is the in-utero connection between the mother and the fetus. Transplacental means something (a drug, antibodies, an infectious agent, etc.) crosses from the mother to the fetus before birth. This can be good in the case of antibodies that protect the newborn from disease early in life or bad if it is an infectious agent that transfers from mother to baby.   (Modified: 2/15/2000)

transrectal ultrasonography
Placing the ultrasound probe into the rectum in order to more clearly recognize internal organs and structures   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

transverse
Cross sectional view of a structure.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

Travasol®
An amino acid solution used in TPN and PPN.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

trichiasis
Normal hair from around the eyes is directed towards the eye, causing irritation.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

trichiasis
Condition in which hairs originating from normal locations turn inward and cause irritation.   (Modified: 5/25/2000)

trichogram
This is a hair "plucks". The trichogram is useful to evaluate the integrity of hair shafts and also serves as a test for demodicosis and dermatophytosis.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

tris-EDTA solution
A combination of EDTA, tromethane [hydroxymethyl]aminomethane) and sodium dodecyl sulfate used intreatment of Pseudomonas otitis.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

Trombiculidiasis
Chiggers   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

tumor
A swelling of any structure but not always neoplastic.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

tumor
A synonym for cancer.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

tup
A male sheep.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

tupping
Putting the rams and ewes together for mating. Joining is the same thing.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

ulcer
Loss of continuity of the epidermis. Often slow to heal.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

ultrasonography
Passing sound waves through a structure or organ in order to see its internal structure and consistency.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

ultrasoundAbrev: US
An imaging technique in which sound waves are passed through body tissues in order to view the size, shape, location and internal structure of an organ or tissue.   (Modified: 10/2/2000)

ultrasound Abrev: US
An imaging technique in which sound waves are passed through body tissues in order to view the size, shape, location and internal structure of an organ or tissue.   (Modified: 10/2/2000)

ultrasoundAbrev: US
The technique of using sounds waves to determine the size, shape and texture of aninteranl organ.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

umbilical cord
The tubular structure that connects the fetus to the placenta and carries nutrients to the fetus and removes its wastes.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

unavailable protein/heat damaged protein
Portion of the protein irreversibly bound to the fibre fraction in feedstuffs. It is usually a small fraction of the total protein, but can be greatly increased by heat.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

undegradable intake proteinAbrev: UIP
Portion of ingested protein that escapes rumen degradation and is digested directly in the other stomachs or small intestine; generally a more expensive source of protein. Commonly referred to as 'bypass' protein.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

unilateral
Involving one side.   (Modified: 10/27/2000)

unsaturated fat
Any fat that is not completely hydrogenated. Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature. Examples: corn oil, vegetable oil.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

upright silo
Storage unit for high moisture feed, generally silage, either upright.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

ureter
A small tubular structure leading from the kidney to the bladder. There are 2 ureters, one from each kidney.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

urethra
The small tubular structure leading from the bladder to the outside.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

urethra
The tubular structure through which urine flows after it leaves the bladder. During ejaculation sperm are transported to the outside through the urethra.   (Modified: 10/24/2000)

urethra
The tubular structure that transports urine from the urinary bladder to the outside and in the male, carries semen to the outside.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

urinary bladder
The sac-like structure that holds urine until the animal passes the urine.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

urination
To pass urine.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

urine
Liquid wastes.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

urine specific gravityAbrev: USG
The weight of urine compared to an equal volume of water. In general, the greater the USG, the more concentrated is the urine.   (Modified: 10/14/1999)

urine specific gravityAbrev: USG
The weight of urine compared to an equal volume of pure water. USG can be used as a measure or kidney function.   (Modified: 11/29/1999)

uro-vagina
Presence of urine in the vagina.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

urticaria
An allergic reaction of the skin characterised by reddened irregular, elevated patches and severe itching. Also called hives.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

urticaria
Hives, an eruption of wheals.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

uterine inertia
Ineffective or absence of uterine contractions during delivery.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

uterine prolapse
A side effect that may occur after a difficult birth where the the uterus comes out the birth canal.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

uterine prolapse
Exteriorization of the uterus out of the vulva. Prolapse may be a complication of a difficult birth.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

uterine torsion
Twisting of an organ, in this case, twisting of the uterus.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

uterine tubes
Tubes that connect the ovarian bursa to the uterus. Eggs are transported through these tubes to the uterus.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

uteroverdin
A green pigment present in the placenta attached to the endometrium of a bitch. As placental separation occurs during whelping the pigment is discharged.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

uterus
The female organ in which the fetus develops. Composed of a body and 2 horns.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

uvea
The vascular layer of the eye comprised of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. The function is nutritio.n   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

uveitis
Inflammation of the uvea.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

uveodermatologic syndrome
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome or "uveitis with poliosis and vitiligo". Syndrome of uveitis, alopecia, depigmentation and whitening of the hairs.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

vagina
The part of the female reproductive tract connected to the vulva on one end and the cervix on the other.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

vagina
The genital canal of the female between the vulva and the uterus.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

vaginal cytology
Taking samples of the epithelial cells lining the vagina in order to help determine the state of the bitches cycle. The appearance of the cells changes in response to estrogen.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

vaginal prolapse
Prolapse of the vagina through the lips of the vulva. Vaginal prolapse most often occurs during proestrus or early estrus, during the time of estrogen stimulation.   (Modified: 1/12/2001)

vaginal prolapse
Eversion of the vagina outside of the vulva.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

vaginitis
Inflammation of the vagina.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

Variable Accreditation ProgramAbrev: VAP
A set of standards set by the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) which serve as a yardstick for measuring quality of patient care and a vehicle for setting specific goals for the hospital staff.   (Modified: 10/19/2000)

vascular
Relating to blood vessels, both arteries and veins.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

vasculitis
Inflammation of the endothelial lining of a blood vessel.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

vasopressin
An extremely potent vasoconstrictor. It may replace the use of epinephrine in treatment of refractory ventricular fibrillation.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

vasopressor
A drug that stimulates the contraction of the muscle in the walls of capillaries and arteries causing vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

VCAPP
Veterinary and Comparative Anatomy, Pharmacology and Physiology   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

VCS
Veterinary Clinical Sciences   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

vector
A carrier, in the case of recombinant vaccines, a "safe" virus used to introduce immunogenic DNA into the host animal during vaccination.   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

vector
A carrier, in the case of recombinant vaccines, a "safe" virus used to introduce immunogenic DNA into the host animal during vaccination.   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

vein
A blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart. The pressure in veins is lower than in arteries. Veins contain less oxygen and nutrients than arteries and contain waste products that they carry to the lungs or other organs for disposal.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

venereal
Sexually transmitted. Transmissible venereal tumors occur on the genital organs; penis or vagina, and are transmitted from dog to dog by sexual contact.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

venous
Referring to the system of veins.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

ventilator
A device that is used to control breathing.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

ventricle
The heart has 4 chambers; the two chambers that make up the bottom of the heart are the ventricles. Fluid filled spaces in the brain are also called ventricles.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

verminous pneumonia
Pneumonia caused by worms.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

vertebrae
The segments of the backbone. Each vertebrae is separated from adjacent vertebrae by a spongy structure called a disk.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

vertical transmission
Ways an infection is spread from a parent to its offspring.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

vertical transmission
Infection that is spread from parent to offspring.   (Modified: 7/19/1999)

vesicle
A small sac containing fluid   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

vestibular
Pertaining to balance. The inner ear and the cerebellum of the brain are responsible for maintaining balance.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

vestibulum
The area of the female genital tract between the vulva and the vestibular sphincter that opens into the vagina cavity and has on it's floor the opening of the urethra.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

vicryl rapide
An absorbable suture which breaks down in about 2 weeks.   (Modified: 5/25/2000)

VIN
Veterinary Information Network (on-line veterinary community)   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

virgin
Never been bred.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

virucide
A substance that kills viruses.   (Modified: 10/14/1999)

virucide
Kills viruses   (Modified: 7/19/1999)

virulence
Usually used to define the degree of pathogenicity.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

virulence
The ability of an orgnaism to cause disease   (Modified: 4/16/2001)

virulence
The ability of an orgnaism to cause disease   (Modified: 2/10/2003)

viruses
Obligate intracellular parasites. They contain either DNA or RNA, and a protein coat referred to as a capsid.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

VIS
Veterinary Information Systems   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

viscera
A general term for the abdominal organs which are also called viscera.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

vitamins
Organic compounds that function as parts of enzyme systems essential for many metabolic functions.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

vitiligo
Depigmentation   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

vitreocentesis
Obtaining a sample of fluid from the vitreous for cytology or culture.   (Modified: 4/18/2001)

Vitreous
Clear, jellylike substance filling the vitreous chamber, the most posterior cavity in the eye, comprising two-thirds of the volume of the eye. Maintains the shape of the globe.   (Modified: 4/17/2001)

Vivonex®
by Norwich Eaton. A hypoallergenic elemental diet.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

VMP
Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome
Uveodermatologic syndrome or "uveitis with poliosis and vitiligo". Syndrome of uveitis, alopecia, depigmentation and whitening of the hairs.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

volatile fatty acidsAbrev: VFA
By products of digestion in the rumen that make an acidic environment and keep pathogenic bacterial populations down.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

von Willebrand's factor
A blood factor that promotes platelet adhesion.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

VPRD
Office Of Veterinary Public Relations and Development   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

VTH
Veterinary Teaching Hospital   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

vulva
The external part of the female reproductive tract.   (Modified: 2/28/2001)

vulva
The opening into the female genital tract from the outside of the animal.   (Modified: 7/3/2001)

WADDL
Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

walking dandruff
Common name for Cheyletiella infestation.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

Washington Administrative CodesAbrev: WAC
The WAC and RCW (Revised Code of Washington) are the interpretation and implementation of state law. These codes are state law.   (Modified: 10/20/2000)

water soluble vitamins
Includes B complex vitamins and vitamin C. Not normally supplemented for ruminants after two months of age because rumen microbes are able to manufacture enough to meet the animal's requirements.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

WBCAbrev: WBC
White blood cell. There are several types of WBCs including, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and monocytes.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

Weaner
Lamb after weaning to 12 months. No exact age but approx from to 12 months.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

weight-averaged molecular weight
The sum of the number of molecules at each number-averaged molecular weight divided by the total number of molecules in solution. The weight-averaged molecular weight gives an indication of how long a solution will exert an oncotic effect. Generally, the larger the weight-averaged molecular weight, the longer it lasts.   (Modified: 5/19/2003)

wet cow average
Average milk production by lactating cows. Goal is 70 to 80 lbs/day, 21,000-24,000 per year.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

wether
A castrated male sheep.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

wheal
A circumscribed raised lesion of edemma of the dermas. A large number of wheals is urticaria.   (Modified: 2/16/2001)

white muscle disease
Another name for a selenium deficiency.   (Modified: 11/2/1999)

wind up
Sensitization of the central nervous system in response to sustained pain. With sustained pain, new receptors (NMDA receptors)are formed in the central nervous system. These receptors use a very fast neurotransmitter and cause a marked increase in the amount of pain transmitted to the brain. They also prevent opioids from working to their full effectiveness.   (Modified: 6/19/2003)

Winter Baby Syndrome
Crias born in the winter months that are deficient in vitamin D.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

withdrawal periods
The amount of time it takes for a drug to be broken down in the body until it is at a level safe for human consumption.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

withdrawal time
Time meat must be withheld from sale following treatment to avoid sale of residue laden meat.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

withholding period
The time after a drug is administered, before the animal can be marketed (or the milk used for human consumption).   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

withholding time
Time milk must be withheld from sale following treatment to avoid appearance of residues in milk.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

wood's light
An ultraviolet light filtered through nickel oxide. Of the common dermatophytes, only M. canis fluoresces, 25 to 50% of the time.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

WSVMA
Washington State Veterinary Medical Association   (Modified: 12/27/1999)

x-ray
The x-ray is the high energy beam that produces a "picture" of a body part which is called the radiograph. Radiographs are commonly, but incorrectly, referred to as x-rays.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

yearling
Sheep 12 to 24 months of age.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

yeast
A single cell fungi which improves feed digestion by stimulating microbial activity and stabilizing digestive tract pH. Products packaged as "yeast" consist of cells only; "yeast culture" includes live yeast cells plus growth media.   (Modified: 2/11/2000)

Yersinia pestis
Etiologic agent of plague.   (Modified: 2/15/2001)

zona pellucida
The envelope surrounding the egg or ovum.   (Modified: 7/5/2001)

zoonoses
A biologically heterogeneous group of infectious diseases.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

zoonosis
A disease that can be transmitted from animals to people.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

zoonotic disease
Infectious diseases naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans. Some of these diseases can be harbored in a vertebrate animal but there might be a vector involved in transmission, so that is still a zoonotic disease because it is harbored in a vertebrate animal. Additionally the disease may be food or water borne, so you don't need to have direct contact with an animal to acquire a zoonotic disease.   (Modified: 10/26/1999)

zoonotic Infection
Refers to infectious microorganisms that have the potential to cause disease in humans. Public Health is the study of zoonotic infections.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)




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Comments and questions: webmaster@vetmed.wsu.edu.
Revised February 19, 2004