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A term may appear more than once if it was entered by more than one instructor. This glossary contains terms used in courses in the College of Veterinary Medicine. Some of the definitions are unique to a course. This is NOT meant to be an all inclusive dictionary..

abdomen
The belly.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

abdominocentesis
Placing a needle into the abdominal (belly) cavity to check for the presence of abnormal fluid.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

abscess
An accumulation of pus.   (Modified: 10/14/1999)

acute
The sudden onset of signs of disease.   (Modified: 10/14/1999)

Addison’s disease
Inadequate production of hormones produced by the adrenal glands. Also known as hypoadrenocorticism.   (Modified: 10/12/1999)

adrenal gland
A gland located close to the kidneys that produces several hormones including cortisol.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

adrenaline
Also known as epinephrine. A hormone that stimulates the heart and increases blood pressure.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

aerobic bacteria
Bacteria that grow only when oxygen is present.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

agglutination
An abnormal clumping of red blood cells. Often seen in patients with immune-mediated anemia.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

albumin
A small protein in blood that acts like a “sponge” to keep fluid within the blood vessels. If albumin is low, fluid leaks out of the blood vessels and causes edema.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

aldosterone
A hormone produced by the adrenal gland that is responsible for salt and water balance in the body.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

alimentary
Another term for the gut or intestinal tract. The alimentary tract runs from the mouth, through the esophagus to the stomach, duodenum, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

alopecia
Loss of hair.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

alveolus
Microscopic sac-like structures within the lung. The airways terminate in these sac-like structures. When blood in the lung contacts the alveoli, the blood takes up oxygen and empties waste gases that will be removed during breathing.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

amylase
An enzyme produced by the pancreas that contributes to digestion of food. Lack of amylase results in a large amount of greasy stool being passed.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

anaerobic bacteria
A bacteria that grows only when oxygen is not present.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

analgesic
A drug given to reduce pain.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

anemia
A low red blood cell count.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

anesthesia
Loss of sensation induced by a drug. This can be loss of sensation in a body part which is called local anesthesia or loss of consciousness with general anesthesia.   (Modified: 12/22/1999)

anisocoria
Pupils that are unequal in size. The problem may be caused by diseases of the eye or the nerves to the eyes.   (Modified: 10/22/1999)

anisocoria
Unequal size of the pupils.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

anorexia
Lack of appetite.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

anthelmetics
Medications given to remove or kill worms. Also called wormers.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

antibiotics
Drugs that kill bacteria, but not viruses.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

antibody
A protein produced by the immune system to protect the body from disease caused by infectious agents (bacteria, viruses).   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

anticoagulants
Drugs that reduce the ability of the blood to clot. Also called blood thinners.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

anticonvulsant
Drugs administered to reduce seizures.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

antidiuretic hormoneAbrev: ADH
A hormone produced in the brain that acts on the kidney causing it to save water and to produce less urine.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

antiemetics
Drugs administered to reduce vomiting.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

antifungal
A drug used in the treatment of a disease caused by a fungus.   (Modified: 4/21/2001)

antigen
A foreign protein that stimulates the body’s immune system to produce antibodies.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

antipyretics
Drugs that suppress a fever in an attempt to bring the temperature to normal.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

anus
The muscular tissue at the end of the rectum that keeps stool in the rectum until the animal defecates.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

arrhythmia
An abnormal heart rhythm.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

arteries
Blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the organs and tissues. Arteries contain more oxygen and nutrients than veins and are under higher pressure.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

arthritis
Inflammation of the joints.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

ascites
The accumulation of fluid in the abdominal (peritoneal)(belly) cavity.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

aspiration
Inhaling food or other materials into the airways.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

ataxia
Incoordination or abnormal gait.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

atria
The heart has 4 chambers; the two chambers that make up the top of the heart are the atria.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

auscultation
To listen with a stethoscope. The heart and lung sounds are heard by auscultation.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

azotemia
The increase of waste products in the bloodstream due to kidney failure.   (Modified: 10/15/1999)

bacteria
Microscopic organisms that may be normal or may cause disease. The healthy body normally contains some bacteria.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

benign
A cancer that has low possibility of spread to other parts of the body.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

bile
A yellow fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder that helps in the digestion of fats.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

bile acids
Substances produces by the liver and secreted in the bile that aid digestion.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

bilirubin
A substance produced when old red blood cells are destroyed in the body. Abnormal amounts of bilirubin cause jaundice and are caused by breakdown of large numbers of red blood cells or by disease of the liver or gall bladder.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

biopsy
To take a small sample of an organ for microscopic examination.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

bitch
Another term for female dog.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

bladder
The sac-like structure, which holds urine until the urine can be passed.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

bone marrow
The soft center of bones. Blood cells are produced in the bone marrow.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

bradycardia
A slow heart rate.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

bronchi and bronchiole
Small tubular structures that lead from the trachea to the microscopic sac-like structures, alveoli, in the lungs.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

bronchoscope
A stiff or flexible tube with a light that is used to look inside the airways.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

bronchoscopy
Using a bronchoscope to look inside the trachea and large bronchi.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cachexia
Very thin, a synonym for emaciation.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

calculi
Stones in the kidney, urinary bladder or occasionally gall bladder.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

canine
A synonym for dog.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

carcinoma
A type of cancer originating from epithelial cells. Example squamous cell carcinoma originates from cells of the skin and mouth, transitional cell carcinoma originates from the cells of the bladder.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cardiac
A synonym for heart.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cardiomyopathy
A disease of the heart muscle. Weak heart muscle cannot pump blood normally.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cardiovascular
The organ system that includes the heart and blood vessels.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

castration
A synonym for neutering the male animal by removal of the testicles.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cataract
Abnormal cloudiness of the lens of the eye.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

caudal
Refers to the rear or in a direction toward the rear of the animal. For example the abdomen is more caudal than the chest. The opposite term is cranial meaning closer to the head of the animal.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cerebellum
A smaller portion of the brain responsible for balance.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cerebrum
The major portion of the brain.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

chemotherapy
Drugs used in the treatment of cancer.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cholangitis
Inflammation of the gallbladder.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

chronic
A disease or condition that has been present for several weeks or longer.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cirrhosis
Scar tissue in the liver. Severe cirrhosis causes liver failure.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

clinical study
A clinical study or clinical trial is a test of a new drug or procedure that is being evaluated for effectiveness in animals with naturally occurring disease. In some cases the effectiveness of the new drug or procedure is compared with currently available treatments.   (Modified: 4/24/2000)

colitis
Inflammation of the large intestine (colon).   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

colon
Part of the large intestine.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

complete blood countAbrev: CBC
Also known as a CBC. The number of red blood cells and white blood cells in the blood stream.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

computerized tomography scanAbrev: CT
Many x-ray pictures are taken during a CT scan. A computer is used to put the x-ray pictures together to obtain a 3-dimensional view of a structure.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

conjunctiva
The pink tissues surrounding the eye.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

conjunctivitis
Inflammation of the pink tissues (conjunctiva) surrounding the eye.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

constipation
Excessively firm stool.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

contrast
A dye given by mouth or in the vein that will make some organs more visible on an x-ray (radiograph).   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

contusion
Bruise.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

coprophagia
Eating feces (stool).   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

corticosteroid
A general term for drugs that act like the hormone, cortisol. Also called a glucocorticoid.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cortisol
A hormone produced by the adrenal gland that affects the function of most organs in the body. Some primary functions are to increase blood sugar and to reduce inflammation.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cranial
Refers to the head or in a direction toward the front of the animal. For example the chest is more cranial than the abdomen. The opposite term is caudal meaning closer to the rear of the animal.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

Cushing’s Disease
A disease of the adrenal gland that produces too much of the hormone cortisol. Too much cortisol causes signs including drinking, eating and urinating increased amounts and loss of hair on the body. Also called hyperadrenocorticism.   (Modified: 10/12/1999)

cystitis
Inflammation of the bladder.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

cytology
Looking at normal and abnormal cells with a microscope.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

defecation
The act of passing stool (feces).   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

dehydration
Loss of fluid from the bloodstream and tissues.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

dermatitis
Inflammation of the skin.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

dextrose
Another term for sugar.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

diabetes mellitus
Also known as sugar diabetes. An insufficient amount of insulin is produced by the pancreas resulting in a high blood sugar level.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

diagnostic tests
These are tests performed to find the cause of a pet’s problem. Diagnostic tests may include analysis of blood, urine, and other body fluids; x-rays (the correct term is radiographs); biopsies, etc.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

diarrhea
A stool that is looser than normal.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

digestive system
An organ system that absorbs and digests food. The digestive system includes the esophagus, stomach, intestine, liver and pancreas.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

disinfection
To destroy germs by using chemicals (disinfectants) or by physical means such as high temperature.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

diuretics
Drugs that increase the amount of urine produced.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

duodenum
The portion of the intestine directly attached to the stomach.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

dysphagia
Difficulty eating and swallowing.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

dyspnea
Difficulty breathing.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

dysuria
Difficulty urinating.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

echocardiography
An ultrasound exam of the heart. Passing sound waves through the heart to see the internal structure of the heart. A plain radiograph (x-ray) only shows the shape of the heart but not its internal structure.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

edema
The accumulation of fluid in abnormal locations in the body.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

electrocardiographyAbrev: ECG
A test that measures the electrical activity of the heart. ECG or EKG.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

elizabethan collar
A large plastic collar that is placed over the head of a dog or cat. It has a cone shape and is used to keep them from licking or chewing on themselves.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

emaciation
Severe weight loss. Extremely thin. Also called cachexia.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

emesis
A synonym for vomiting.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

encephalitis
Inflammation of the brain.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

endocrine
The body system that produces hormones. Endocrine organs include the pancreas, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, and adrenal glands. Diseases of the endocrine system may lead to the production of too much or too little hormone.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

enzymes
A substance that makes a chemical process faster. For example digestive enzymes break down food to hasten the process of digestion.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

eosinophil
A type of white blood cell observed in increased numbers in allergies.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

epistaxis
Bloody nose.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

erythrocyteAbrev: RBC
Red blood cell.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

esophagus
A muscular tube leading from the mouth to the stomach.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

estrus
A stage in the reproductive cycle of the female dog and cat, also known as heat.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

extracranial
Outside of the head.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

feces
Another word for solid wastes (stool).   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

feline
Cat.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

fetal
Refers to a puppy or kitten before birth.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

fetus
Refers to prior to being born.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

flatulence
Passing gas from the intestinal tract. May be a sign of disease of the small intestine.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

fluoroscopy
A type of radiograph (x-ray) in which motion can be seen.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

FLUTD
Feline lower urinary tract disease. A collection of signs in cats resulting in blood in the urine, straining to urinate, and urinating in abnormal locations. The older term is feline urologic syndrome (FUS).   (Modified: 10/12/1999)

fracture
Break in a bone.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

FUS
Feline urologic syndrome. A collection of signs in cats resulting in blood in the urine, straining to urinate, and urinating in abnormal locations. The more current term is feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD).   (Modified: 10/12/1999)

gait
The appearance of the animal as it is moving. The gait is evaluated for lameness, incoordination, dragging toenails, etc   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

gastric
Another term for stomach.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

germs
Microscopic organisms that can cause disease. May include bacteria and viruses.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

gingiva
The gums.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

gingivitis
Inflammation and swelling of the gums surrounding the teeth. The gingiva are normally pink and become red when inflamed.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

glaucoma
Increased fluid accumulation in the eye causing increased pressure, pain and leading to blindness if untreated.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

glomerulus
The microscopic functional unit of the kidney. Disease of the glomeruli causes protein to leak into the urine.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

glucocorticoid
A general term for drugs that act like the hormone, cortisol. Also called a corticosteroid.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hemangiosarcoma
A cancer of blood vessels. This cancer usually occurs in the spleen, skin or sometimes the heart.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hematology
The study of blood.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hematoma
The accumulation of blood under the skin.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hematuria
Red blood cells in the urine.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hemoglobin
The substance contained in red blood cells that carries oxygen to parts of the body.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hemolysis
The breakdown of red blood cells.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hemolysis
The breakdown of red blood cells.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hemostat
A surgical instrument used to pinch small blood vessels to stop bleeding (hemostasis is to stop bleeding). Hemastats may be used in non-surgical procedures, for example to pluck hair from the ear canals.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

hepatic
A synonym for liver.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hormone
A substance produced by an endocrine organ that moves around the body in the blood stream.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hydrocephalous
The accumulation of fluid in the ventricles of the brain. The head may appear to be large and dome shaped. Many small breeds of dogs have a degree of hydrocephalous that is normal for the breed. Severe hydrocephalous damages brain tissue.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hydrocephalus
The abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain. The fluid causes an increase in the pressure inside the brain and death of some brain cells.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

hyper
This prefix is used in conjunction with many terms and means an increase, for example, hyperthermia means an increase in temperature.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hyperglycemia
Elevated blood sugar.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hyperkalemia
Elevated potassium.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hyperphosphatemia
Elevated phosphorus.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hypertension
Elevated blood pressure.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hyperthyroidism
Increased amount of thyroid hormone.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hypertrophic
A thickening or an enlargement of an organ.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hypo
This prefix is used in conjunction with many terms and means a decrease, for example, hypothermia means a decrease in temperature.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hypoglycemia
Low blood sugar.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hypokalemia
Low potassium.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hypotension
Low blood pressure.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

hypothyroid
Low function of the thyroid gland.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

iatrogenic
Disease that was caused while trying to diagnose or treat another condition. For example, if a complication such as excessive bleeding arises during a biopsy procedure, the complication is iatrogenic.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

icterus
A synonym for jaundice, a yellow discoloration.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

idiopathic
Unknown cause.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

immune-mediated
The immune system is supposed to protect against disease by destroying foreign objects such as bacteria. If the immune system attacks normal parts of the body such as red blood cells, the disease is immune-mediated.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

incontinence
The inability to hold urine in the bladder. The animal leaks urine either while awake or asleep.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

infection
Multiplication of organisms such as bacteria in the body usually leading to disease.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

infectious agents
The agents that cause disease. They may be bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

inflammation
Redness, swelling, heat and pain of a body part.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

insulin
A hormone produced by the pancreas that controls blood sugar levels.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

intestine
The gut. A tubular organ that attaches to the stomach. The intestine is responsible for absorbing nutrients and water and eliminating wastes. The first part of the intestine is the duodenum, followed by the small intestine, large intestine, colon and rectum.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

intracranial
Inside of the head.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

intravenous
IV. Giving a drug or other substance into a vein for a rapid effect.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

intussusception
A telescoping of a part of the intestinal tract into another part of the intestine.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

jaundice
Yellow discoloration due to the accumulation of abnormal amounts of bilirubin. Jaundice is seen in non-haired parts of the body; white parts of the eyes, inside the mouth and ears and on the belly. Also called icterus.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

jejunum
The longest part of the small intestinal tract.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

jugular
A large vein on the bottom surface of the neck that may be used to collect blood samples or to place catheters.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

KCS
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Dry eye.   (Modified: 10/12/1999)

keratitis
Inflammation of the clear part of the eye, the cornea.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

ketoacidosisAbrev: DKA
A form of diabetes mellitus in which the pet has increased amounts of acids in the blood and is very sick.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

laparotomy
A surgical procedure to open the abdominal (belly) cavity.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

larynx
The voicebox. The larynx closes during swallowing to keep food out of the airways.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

lethargy
Malaise or inactivity.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

leukocytosis
High white blood cell count.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

leukopenia
Low white blood cell count.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

lymphoma
A cancer of the lymph glands.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

magnetic resonance imagingAbrev: MRI
A very strong magnet is used to produce a 3 dimensional picture of a structure in the body. MRI is a good method to look inside the skull to see the brain.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

malignancy
Cancer.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

malignant
A cancer that has high possibility for spread.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

micturition
A synonym for urination.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

mucosa
The pink lining of an organ, such as the lining of the nose, mouth, vagina, penis.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

murmur
An abnormal heart sound caused by abnormal blood flow.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

myelosuppression
A suppression of the bone marrow so that it does not produce normal numbers of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

myopathy
Inflammation of muscle.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

nasal
A synonym for the cavity behind the nose.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

neonate
Refers to a young puppy or kitten shortly after birth.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

neoplasia
A synonym for cancer.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

neoplasm
A lump or cancer. The word means "new growth".   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

neutrophil
The most common type of white blood cell observed in the blood stream.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

obesity
Overweight. Fat.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

oliguria
An abnormally small amount of urine. Usually due to dehydration or acute kidney failure.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

oncology
The study of cancer.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

oral
Giving something by mouth or refering to the mouth.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

oral cavity
The mouth.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

orchitis
Inflammation of the testicles.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

organ system
A group of organs that function together. For example the digestive system includes the esophagus, intestinal tract, liver and pancreas because they all function to absorb and digest food.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

ovariohysterectomyAbrev: OVH
The removal of the female reproductive organs. Spaying, spayed, (NOT SPADE).   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

paralysis
Abnormal function of nerves resulting in an inability to walk.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

paroxysmal
The sudden onset of a symptom that reoccurs. For example paroxysmal seizures begin suddenly and occur more than once.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

perianal
The region around the anus.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

pericardium
A very thin tissue surrounding the heart. Abnormal fluid can accumulate between the heart and the pericardial membrane causing pericardial effusion.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

peritoneal
The abdominal or belly cavity.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

pharynx
Back of the mouth. Throat.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

plasma
The clear part of blood that remains after blood is separated into cells and fluid before the blood clots. If the blood is allowed to clot then separated into cells and fluid, the fluid is then called serum.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

platelets
Small pieces of cells in the blood stream that help an animal stop bleeding when it has been injured.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

pneumonia
Inflammation of the lung.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

poly
Means several or too much such as polydactyly means having too many toes.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

polydipsiaAbrev: PD
Drinking too much water.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

polymyositis
Inflammation of several muscles at one time.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

polyuriaAbrev: PU
Passing a large amount of urine.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

postpartum
The period of time after giving birth.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

postprandial
The period of time immediately after eating.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

pre-anesthetic
A drug given before general anesthesia; usually a sedative or tranquilizer which is given to reduce apprehension and to allow the use of lower doses of the more potent anesthetic agents.   (Modified: 12/22/1999)

prepuce
The tissue that covers the penis. Sometimes called the sheath.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

pruritis
Itchy   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

pyuria
White blood cells in the urine.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

queen
A female cat. When used as a verb, "to queen" describes a cat giving birth.   (Modified: 2/14/2000)

radiograph
The image generated by an x-ray. Often the term x-ray is used incorrectly to refer to a radiograph.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

regurgitation
Backward movement of food from the esophagus out the mouth.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

sarcoma
Cancer originating from fibrous tissues.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

sclera
The white part of the eye beneath the upper eyelid. The sclera normally has small blood vessels running across the surface.   (Modified: 10/22/1999)

seizure
Another term for convulsions.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

serum
The clear part of blood that remains after blood is allowed to clot. Very similar to plasma except that plasma is the fluid part of blood when blood is separated into cells and fluid before the blood clots.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

spleen
An organ in the abdomen that stores cells. The spleen can be removed if it is diseased.   (Modified: 10/22/1999)

stenosis
A narrowing of a tubular structure. For example the intestine may stricture interfering with movement of food through the intestine.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

stomatitis
Inflammation of the mouth including the gums and tongue.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

storage diseases
Diseases in which cells of the body accumulate (store) a substance that causes the cells to malfunction. For example cells may store too much fat or sugar.   (Modified: 11/16/1999)

stranguria
Straining to urinate.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

stricture
Similar to stenosis. Narrowing of a tubular structure.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

subcutaneousAbrev: SC or SQ
Giving a drug, fluid or vaccine under the skin.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

thorax
Another term for chest.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

thrombocytopenia
Low platelet count.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

toxins
Poisons either from the environment or wastes accumulating in the blood due to organ failure. E.G. uremic wastes are those toxins that accumulate in the blood when the kidneys fail.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

trachea
A synonym for the windpipe.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

tumor
A synonym for cancer.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

ultrasoundAbrev: US
An imaging technique in which sound waves are passed through body tissues in order to view the size, shape, location and internal structure of an organ or tissue.   (Modified: 10/2/2000)

ureter
A small tubular structure leading from the kidney to the bladder. There are 2 ureters, one from each kidney.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

urethra
The small tubular structure leading from the bladder to the outside.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

urine
Liquid wastes.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

vascular
Relating to blood vessels, both arteries and veins.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

vein
A blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart. The pressure in veins is lower than in arteries. Veins contain less oxygen and nutrients than arteries and contain waste products that they carry to the lungs or other organs for disposal.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

venereal
Sexually transmitted. Transmissible venereal tumors occur on the genital organs; penis or vagina, and are transmitted from dog to dog by sexual contact.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

venous
Referring to the system of veins.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

ventilator
A device that is used to control breathing.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

ventricle
The heart has 4 chambers; the two chambers that make up the bottom of the heart are the ventricles. Fluid filled spaces in the brain are also called ventricles.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

vertebrae
The segments of the backbone. Each vertebrae is separated from adjacent vertebrae by a spongy structure called a disk.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

vestibular
Pertaining to balance. The inner ear and the cerebellum of the brain are responsible for maintaining balance.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

viscera
A general term for the abdominal organs which are also called viscera.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

WBCAbrev: WBC
White blood cell. There are several types of WBCs including, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and monocytes.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

x-ray
The x-ray is the high energy beam that produces a "picture" of a body part which is called the radiograph. Radiographs are commonly, but incorrectly, referred to as x-rays.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)

zoonosis
A disease that can be transmitted from animals to people.   (Modified: 10/18/1999)




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