Lawrence K. Fox
Our research efforts are designed to examine new methods of control of
contagious mastitis. These efforts are principally directed at control of
and Mycoplasma sp.
mastitis. Our focus
is directed at the development and validation of strategies to control this
disease through applied and basic research.
Currently we are utilizing biotechnologies to Fingerprint S. aureus
and Mycoplasma sp
., the most prevalent contagious
mastitis pathogens, to determine reservoirs and fomites of
infection. We also have projects designed to examine the role
exotoxins have as superantigens in mastitis, and their
affect on milk quality. We are applying similar technologies in
an effort to control Mycoplasma sp.
- Control of contagious mastitis in cows and heifers.
- Control of mastitis on organic dairy farms
- Exotoxins in milk: affects on milk quality and mammary immunity.
- Determination of reservoirs of Mycoplasma sp. that cause
Publications (last 5 years)
- Punyapornwithaya, V., L.K. Fox, J.M. Gay, D.D. Hancock,
and J.R. Alldredge. 2009. The effect of centrifugation
and resuspension on the recovery of Myscoplasma species from
milk. J. Dairy. Sci. 92:4444-4447.
- Adhikari B., Besser T.E., Gay J.M., Fox L.K., Davis
M.A., Cobbold R.N., Berge A.C., Hancock D.D.2009.
Introduction of new multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica
strains into commercial dairy herds. J. Dairy
- Adhikari B, Besser T.E., Gay J.M., Fox L.K., Davis M.A.,
Cobbold R.N., Berge A.C.,McClanahan R, Hancock D.D.2009.The
role of animal movement, including off-farm rearing of
heifers, in the interherd transmission of
multidrug-resistant Salmonell. J. Dairy. Sci. 92:4218-4228.
- Fox, L.K. 2009. Prevalence, incidence and risk factors
of heifer mastitis. Vet. Micro. 134:82-88.
- Andrew, S.M., K.M. Moyes, A.A. Borm, L.K. Fox, K.E.
Leslie, J.S. Hogan, S.P. Oliver, Y.H. Schukken, W.E. Owens,
and C. Norman. 2009. Factors associated with the risk
of antibiotic residues and intramammary pathogen presence in
milk fro heifers administered prepartum intramammary
antibiotic therapy. Vet. Micro. 134:150-6.
- Seo, K.S., J.Y. Park, W.C. Davis, L.K. Fox, M.A.
McGuire, Y.H. Park, G.A. Bohach. 2009. Superantigen-mediated
differentiation of bovine monocytes into dendritic cells. J.
Leukoc. Bio. 85:606-16
- Fox, L.K., F.J. Muller, M.L. Wedam, C.S. Schneider, and
M.K. Biddle. 2008. Clinical Mycoplasma bovis mastitis in
prepubertal heifers on 2 dairy herds. Can. Vet. J.
- Church, G.T., L.K. Fox, C.T. Gaskins, D. D. Hancock, and
J.M. Gay. 2008. The effect of a shortened dry period
on intramammary infections during the subsequent lactation.
J. Dairy Sci. 91: 4219:4225.
- Keun Seok Seo, Sang Un Lee, Yong Ho Park, W. C. Davis,
Lawrence K. Fox, and Gregory A. Bohach. 2007.
Long-Term Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C1 Exposure Induces
Soluble Factor-Mediated Immunosuppression by Bovine CD4 and
CD8 T Cells. Infection and Immunity, 75:260–269.
- Park YH, SU Lee, WA Ferens, S Samuels, WC Davis, LK Fox,
JS Ahn, KS Seo, BS Chang, SY Hwang, and GA Bohach (2006)
Unique features of bovine lymphocytes exposed to a
staphylococcal superantigen. Journal of Veterinary Science
- Fox, L. K., C. Gradle, and A. Dee. 2006.
Disinfectant containing a complex of skin conditioners. J.
Dairy Sci. 89:2539-2541.
- Borm, A. A., L. K. Fox, K. E. Leslie, J. S. Hogan, S. M.
Andrew, K. M. Moyes, S. P. Oliver, Y. H. Schukken, D. D.
Hancock, C. T. Gaskins, W.E. Owens, and C. Norman.
2006. Effects of prepartum intramammary antibiotic
therapy on udder health. J. Dairy Sc,i. 89:2090-2098.
- Fox, L.K., R.N. Zadoks and C.T. Gaskins. 2005.
Biofilm production by Staphylococcus aureus associated with
intramammary infection.Vet Micro. 107: 295-299.
- Griffin, K.B. J. J. Michal, L. K. Fox, C. T.
Gaskins, and Z. Jiang. 2005. Fine mapping of the
bovine chromosome 22q24 region that harbours antimicrobial
genes and a QTL for somatic cell score. Animal
- Smith, E. M., L.E. Green, G.F. Medley, H.E. Bird, L. K.
Fox, Y. H. Schukken, J. V. Kruze, A. J. Bradley, R. N.
Zadoks, and C. G. Dowson. 2005.
Multilocus sequence typing of intercontineatal bovine
staphylococcus aureus isolates. J. Clin. Micro 43:
- Chang, S. B., G. A. Bohach, S.U. Lee, W.C. Davis, L.K.
Fox, W.A. Ferens, K.S. Seo, H. C. Koo, M.H Kwon, Y.H. Park.
2005. Immunosuppression by T regulatory celss in cows
infected with Staphylococcal superantigen. J.
Veterinary Science. 6:247-250
- Fox, L.K., J.H. Kirk, and A. Britten. 2005.
Mycoplasma mastitis: A review of transmission and control.
J. Vet. Med. 52:153-160.
- Biddle, M. K., L. K. Fox, M. A. Evans, and C. C. Gay.
2005. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of
Mycoplasma isolates from various body sites in dairy cattle
with Mycoplasma mastitis. JAVMA 227:445-459.
- Zecconi, A., R. Piccinini, and L.K. Fox. 2004.
Epidemiologic study of non-contagious intramammary
infections in nine commercial dairy herds following a
Staphylococcus aureus control program. J. Vet Med. B
- Biddle, M.K., L. K. Fox, D. D. Hancock, C. T.
Gaskins, and M. A. Evans Effects of Storage Time and Thawing
Methods on the Recovery of Mycoplasma Species in Milk
Samples from Cows with Intramammary Infections
J. Dairy Sci. 2004 87: 933-936.
- Zecconi, A., R. Piccinini, and L. K. Fox. 2003.
Epidemiologic study of intramammary infections with
Staphylococcus aureus during a control program in nine
commercial dairy herds. JAVMA. 223: 684-688.
- Fox, L.K., L.Y. Oura, and C.R. Ames. 2003. Teat Skin pH.
J. Dairy Sci. 86:3951:3952
- Silk, A.S., L. K. Fox, and D. D. Hancock. 2003.
Removal of hair surrounding the teat and associated
bacterial counts on teat skin surface, in milk, and
intramammary infections. J. Vet. Med. B. 50:1-4.
- Joo, Y.S., J. S. Moon, L.K. Fox, G.H. Suh, N. H. Kwon,
S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Park. 2003. Comparison of natural
resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP-1)
expression between cows with high and low milk somatic cells
counts. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1830-1836.
- Biddle, Mary K , Larry K. Fox, and Dale D. Hancock
2003. Patterns of mycoplasma shedding in the milk of
dairy cows with intramammary mycoplasma infection. JAVMA
- Fox, L.K., G. A. Bohach, S. U. Lee, K.T. Park, and Y.H.
Park. 2003. Mastitis: Effect on milk quality,
causative agents and control. Kor. J. Vet. Publ
- Lee, S. U., Y. H. Park, W. C. Davis, L. K. Fox, and G.
A. Bohach. 2003. The properties of human and bovine
CD8+CD26+ T Cells induced by a microbial superantigen.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 524:1-4.
- Fox, LK, Hancock, DD, Mickelson, A, and A. Britten.
2003. Bulk tank milk analysis:Factors associated with
appearance of Mycoplasma sp in milk. J. Vet. Med B
- Middleton JR, Hebert VR, Fox LK, Tomaszewska E, Lakritz
J. 2003. Elimination kinetics of chlorhexidine
in milk following intramammary infusion to stop lactation in
mastitic mammary gland quarters of cows. J Am Vet Med
Assoc. 222(12): 1746-1749
- Hebert V.R., J.R. Middleton, E. Tomaszewska, and L.K.
Fox. 2003. Methodology for quantifying residues of
chlorhexidine in raw dairy milk. J. Ag. and Food Chem.
- Lee, SU, YH Park, WC Davis, MJ Hamilton, J Naessens, and
GA Bohach (2002) Molecular characterization of bovine CD26
upregulated by staphylococcal superantigen. Immunogenetics
- R. N. Zadoks, W. B. van Leeuwen, D. Kreft, L. K. Fox, H.
W. Barkema, Y. H. Schukken, and A. van Belkum. 2002.
Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine and
human dkin, milking rquipment, and bovine milk by phage
typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and binary typing.
J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:3894-3902.
- Middleton J.R., L.K. Fox, J.M. Gay, J.W. Tyler, and T.E.
Besser. 2002. Use of pulsed-field gel
electrophoresis for detecting differences in Staphylococcus
aureus strain populations between dairy herds with different
cattle importation practices. Epidemiol.
- Middleton J.R., and L.K. Fox. 2002.
Influence of Staphylococcus aureus strain on mammary quarter
milk production. Vet Rec. 150(13):411-412.
- Middleton J.R., L.K.Fox, J.M. Gay, J.W. Tyler, and T.E.
Besser. 2002. Influence of Staphylococcus aureus strain-type
onmammary quarter milk somatic cell count and
N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity in cattle from
eight dairies. J. Dairy Sci. 85:1133-40.
- Oura, L.Y., L.K. Fox, C.C. Warf, and G. K. Kemp. 2002.
Efficacy of two acidified chlorite postmilking teat
disinfectants with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid on
prevention of contagious mastitis using an experimental
challenge protocol. J. Dairy Sci. 85:252-257.
- Lee, S.U., W. Ferens, W. C. Davis, M.J. Hamilton, Y.H.
Park, L.K. Fox, J. Naessens, and G. A. Bohach. 2001.
Identity of activation milecule 3 on superantigen-stimulated
bovine cells is CD 26. Infect. Immun. 66573-580.
- Middleton J.R., L.K. Fox, and T.H. Smith. 2001.
Management strategies to decrease the prevalence of mastitis
caused by one strain of Staphylococcus aureus in a dairy
herd. JAVMA. 218:1615-1618
- Middleton, J. R., and L. K. Fox. 2001. Therapeutic
cessation of lactation of Staphylococcus asureus-infected
mammary quarters. J. Dairy Sci., 84:1976-1978