College of Veterinary Medicine

Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology

Steve Hines

Stephen A. Hines, DVM, PhD, DACVP
Professor of Veterinary Microbiology & Pathology
Berger Keatts Distinguished Professor (Excellence in Teaching)

In recent years, my research has focused on Rhodococcus equi, a gram-positive bacteria that is an important pathogen in horses. R. equi is related to Mycobacterium species, including the agent that causes tuberculosis. Like M. tuberculosis, R. equi replicates within macrophages and produces pyogranulomatous pneumonia. Disease due to R. equi occurs uniquely in foals between 2 and 6 months of age. Adult horse appear to be immune and provide a model to study what constitutes a successful immune response (i.e. the correlates of immunity and the protective phenotype).

Our work on equine rhodococcal pneumonia has included pulmonary & mucosal immunity, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, DNA vaccines, and developing methods for studying cellular immune responses in horses. Another important aspect of this work is neonatal immunity, since a successful vaccine would probably need to be administered early in life. Currently we are looking at the role of non-traditional, MHC-unrestricted T lymphocytes and hypothesize that these immune cells recognize unique R. equi lipid antigens presented by CD1 molecules.

The long term goal is to contribute to the development of novel vaccines in animals, especially a vaccine that will prevent rhodococcal pneumonia.

I have also worked for some time on Babesia bovis, an Apicomplexan protozoa that significantly limits cattle production in much of the world. Babesia species replicate within erythrocytes and cause a disease resembling malaria. This research is primarily collaborative now, and I collaborate with Dr. Don Knowles on Babesia equi and B. caballi, which are important protozoal pathogens affected horses.


(Pubmed - Hines SA)


  • B.A.: Miami University, Oxford, Ohio; 1977
  • D.V.M.: Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; 1981
  • Residency in Anatomic Pathology: University of Florida - Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Gainesville, Florida; 1982-84
  • Ph.D.: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida; 1989 (Immunology & Infectious Disease)

Clinical Specialty:

  • Diplomate, American College of Veterinary Pathology (DACVP); 1985.

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Last Edited: Jul 21, 2009 4:46 PM   

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