The Anaplasma marginale Genome Sequencing
Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent tick-borne
pathogen of cattle worldwide. The disease results in significant
morbidity and mortality in U.S. cattle and is a constraint to export.
Critically, there is no federally licensed vaccine available and the
live, blood-based vaccines widely used in tropical countries cannot be
licensed in the U.S. due to the risk of transmitting both known and
unknown pathogens. A vaccine for anaplasmosis is a priority for the USDA
National Cattlemen’s Beef Association and many other research groups
A. marginale is the type species for the genus
Anaplasma which contains both animal and human
The first strain selected for sequencing was the St.
Maries strain as it represents a virulent tick transmissible
strain. The second strain selected for sequencing was the
virulent non-tick-transmissible Florida strain. These
projects were completed using a targeted BAC-based clone-by
clone approach. More recent genome projects have employed
pyrosequencing to provide >96% genome coverage of the
Virginia, Puerto Rico and Mississippi strains.
The A. marginale centrale subspecies genome was
sequenced using a traditional shotgun based approach.
The A. marginale genome sequences were generated
with funding from USDA/ARS CRIS, USDA CSREES, BARD and the
Genome maps of the St. Maries,
Florida and Israel strains. The inner most circle shows GC skew, the
next circle show positions of tRNA (purple) and rRNA (orange) genes.
The positions of CDSs are indicated as bars with genes on the reverse
strand shown within the circle depicting genes on the forward strand.
The St. Maries strain then shows the positions of the BAC clones (blue
and pink arcs) or gap spanning PCR fragments (green and yellow arcs)
that were used to obtain the complete sequence. The next ring shows the
locations of the msp1, 2, 3 genes, while the outermost ring indicates
the genome size coordinates (in 100 kb increments). The Florida strain
map shows genome size (in bp) below the black circle. The outer four
series of bars indicate repetitive genes (black), and regions missing
from pyrosequenced genomes relative to the FL sequence: Virginia (blue),
Puerto Rico (red) and Mississippi (green).
Brayton, K. A., D. P. Knowles, T. C. McGuire, and G. H. Palmer.
Efficient use of a small genome to generate antigenic diversity in
tick-borne ehrlichial pathogens. Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences. 98: 4130-4135, 2001.
Brayton, K. A., L. S. Kappmeyer, D. R. Herndon, M. J. Dark, D. L.
Tibbals, G. H. Palmer, T. C. McGuire and D. P. Knowles Jr. Complete
genome sequencing of Anaplasma marginale reveals that the
surface is skewed to two superfamilies of outer membrane proteins.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 102:
Dark, M. J., D. R. Herndon, L. S. Kappmeyer, M. P. Gonzales, E.
Nordeen, G. H. Palmer, D. P. Knowles, Jr., and K. A. Brayton.
Conservation in the face of diversity: Multistrain analysis of an
intracellular bacterium. BMC Genomics. 10: 16. 2009.
Herndon, D. R., G. H. Palmer, V. Shkap, D. P. Knowles, Jr., and
K. A. Brayton. Complete Genome Sequence of Anaplasma marginale
ss. centrale. Journal of Bacteriology. 192:
Download completed sequences in Genbank format (Right Click and
Anaplasma marginale Florida
Strain genome sequence
Anaplasma marginale St.
Maries Strain genome sequence
marginale centrale Israel Strain genome sequence
BLAST the Anaplasma marginale genomes
BLAST on local server
NCBI BLAST (
Basic local alignment search tool )
BLAST with Microbial Genomes
( NCBI server )
Contact Kelly Brayton
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Anaplasma genome projects.