CD116 CSF2Rα (colony stimulating factor 2, α, low affinity granulocyte-macrophage), GM-CSF Receptor α subunit
Molecule TypeAntigen ExpressionMolecular Weight
Min / Max
Non-lineage Restricted Molecule
Type 1 glycoprotein
Breast
Neutrophil
Eosinophil
Fibroblast
Endothelial Cell
Osteoblast
Lung
Macrophage
Dendritic Cell
Myeloid Leukemia
Sarcoma Cell
Carcinoma Cell
80 / 80

Expression
CD116 is expressed on various myeloid cells including macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, dendritic cells and their precursors, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells.  Expression of CD116 is increased in acute myeloid leukemias, osteogenic sarcoma cell lines, osteoblast-like cells and breast cell and lung carcinoma cell lines.



Structure
MOLECULAR FAMILY NAME: Belongs to the hematopoietin receptor superfamily.

CD116 is an a chain  type-1 378 aa glycoprotein.  It contains 298 aa extracellular domain which contains a N-terminal domain similar to that found in the α chain of CD123 and CD125 followed by a WSXWS motif-containing a fibronectin type-3 domain and has 11 potential N-glycosylation sites, a 26 aa transmembrane domain and a 54 aa intracellular cytoplasmic domain which has no intrinsic enzymatic activity.  The hematopoietin receptor superfamily is within the Ig gene superfamily.
 
MOLECULAR MASS
Cell Type Unreduced Reduced Comment
Myeloid 80 kDa

MOLECULAR MASS OF GM-CSFR
Cell Type Unreduced Reduced
CD116 70 - 85 kDa

POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL MODIFICATION

Alternative splicing yields 6 different isoforms.  All the isoforms are relatively minor species and their physiological function if any is not known.  Isoform1, 2,  and 5 are membrane-bound and isoform 3, 4, and 6 are probably soluble.  There is 1 soluble form without the transmembrane domain, a soluble form which binds GM-CSF has been identified by PCR cloning and a isoform in the altered cytoplasmic tail has been described.

POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION

CD116 is glycosylated.

Ligands
CD116 binds GM-CSF with a low affinity of kDa = 1-8 nM.  CD131, which does not bind GM-CSF, associates with CD116 to generate a high affinity receptor for GM-CSF of kDa = 30-120 pm. The GM-CSFR is believed to bind and mediate phosphorylation of the Janus family Tyr kinase, Jak2.

LIGANDS AND MOLECULES ASSOCIATED WITH CD116
Molecule Comment
GM-CSF CD116 binds GM-CSF with low affinity and binds it with high affinity when it is coexpressed with the common b subunit CD131
CD131 CD116 interacts with the common b  subunit (CD131)
of the GM-CSF, IL-3 and IL-5 receptors

   

Function
CD116 is the primary binding subunit of the GM-CSF receptor which promotes the growth and differentiation of neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes from multipotential bone marrow precursors.  It is also a growth factor for erythroid progenitors, endothelial cells, megakaryocytes and T cells.  CD116 associates with myeloid hematopoiesis, proliferation and differentiation.   The functional receptor requires CD116 to be associated with CD131, a β-subunit that also forms part of the IL-3 and IL-5 receptors and is referred to as the common β-subunit.  GM-CSF induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of a similar set of proteins as IL-3.  CD116 has no intrinsic kinase activity and signal transduction occurs via the JAK-STAT pathway.  GM-CSF activates p21 ras and induces glucose transport, ion fluxes and the expression of a variety of genes. 

BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY: No information.

DISEASE RELEVANCE AND FUNCTION OF CD116 IN INTACT ANIMAL

CD116 is a specific marker of myeloid leukemias.

Comments
MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS -
PROTEINS AND DNA ELEMENTS WHICH REGULATE TRANSCRIPTION OF CD116: No information.

SUBSTRATES: No information.

ENZYMES WHICH MODIFY CD116: No information.


Database accession numbers
AnimalPIRSWISSPROTEMGBL/GENBANK
 
HumanEntrezgene 1438P15509
Antibodies

Revised June 25, 2008


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