CD163 M130, GHI/61, D11, RM3/1
Molecule TypeAntigen ExpressionMolecular Weight
Min / Max
Non-lineage Restricted Molecule
Type 1 glycoprotein
Monocyte
Macrophage
Thymus
Spleen
Liver
Nervous system
Bone Marrow
Kupffer Cell
110 / 110
130 / 130

Expression
CD163 is expressed in a restricted way to the LPS restricted monocyte but is upregulated on monocytes upon activation and tissue macrophage lineage.  Expression is present in Kupffer cells in the liver, red pulp macrophages in the spleen, cortical macrophages in the thymus, in the bone marrow macrophages, and in the central nervous system.  It is present on all circulating monocytes and most tissue macrophages, with the exceptions of tingible body macrophages, macrophages in the mantle zone and germinal centers of lymphoid follicles, interdigitating reticulum cells, and Langerhans cells.  Multinucleated cells within inflammatory lesions in vivo do not express CD163.  CD163 is expressed on low levels of lymphocytes and CD34+ erythroid progenitor cells.  Dendritic cells and follicular dendritic cells are negative.

Structure
MOLECULAR FAMILY NAME:  Belongs to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily.

CD163 is a single-pass type-1 glycoprotein.  It contains a 40 aa leader peptide, a putative 1003 aa extracellular domain which contains 12 scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains of 110 aa each, a 24 aa hydrophobic transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic domain which varies through alternative mRNA splicing.  The major form has 49 aa in the cytoplasmic domain whereas the spice variants have 84aa and 89 aa residue cytoplasmic domains.  The N-terminus has been determined by protein sequencing.

MOLECULAR MASS
Cell Type Unreduced Reduced
110 kDa 130 kDa

POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL MODIFICATION

Alternative splicing yields 4 isoforms.  Isoform 1 is low in blood, isoform 2 is low in the liver and spleen, and isoform 3 is the predominant isoform in the blood.

POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION

CD163 is phosphorylated.

Ligands
LIGANDS AND MOLECULES ASSOCIATED WITH CD163

CD163 is involved in hemoglobin and hepatoglobin complexes.


Function
CD163 is involved in hematopoietic progenitor cell stromal cell interaction and may play a role in the uptake and recycling of iron, via endocytosis of hemoglobin/haptoglobin.  Soluble CD163 inhibits phorbol ester-induced lymphocyte proliferation.  The soluble form (sCD163) may play a anti-inflammatory role in monocytes and may be a valuable diagnostic parameter for monitoring macrophage activation in inflammatory conditions.

BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY: No information.

DISEASE RELEVANCE AND FUNCTION OF CD163 IN INTACT ANIMAL

A number of clinical studies have evaluated cCD163 as a disease marker in inflammatory conditions such as infectious autoimmune disease, transplantation, atherosclerosis and cancer.

Comments
MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS-
PROTEINS AND DNA ELEMENTS WHICH REGULATE TRANSCRIPTION OF CD163: No information.

SUBSTRATES: No information.

ENZYMES WHICH MODIFY CD163: No information.


Database accession numbers
AnimalPIRSWISSPROTEMGBL/GENBANK
 
HumanEntrezgene 9332Q86VB7
Antibodies
Ber-MAC3   View Reactivity

Revised June 25, 2008


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