CD164 MGC-24 (multi-glycosylated core protein 24), MUC-24,
Molecule TypeAntigen ExpressionMolecular Weight
Min / Max
Non-lineage Restricted Molecule
Type 1 glycoprotein
Thyroid
Monocyte
Stromal Cell
Endothelial Cell
Epithelial Cell
Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell
Small intestine
Colon
Lung
Pancreas
Bone Marrow
170 / 170
180 / 180

Expression
CD164 is expressed on a variety of tissues including ectodermal and mesodermal embryonic and post-nasal tissues.  On human hemopoietic cells CD164 is expressed by primitive CD34+ cells throughout ontogeny, including CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells in fetal liver, cord blood and adult bone marrow.  CD164 is expressed by committed myeloid and arythroid colony forming cells and their progeny, including monocytes and maturing erythroid precursors.  Expression is on bone marrow stromal and endothelial cells.  Mature B cells and granulocytes are negative and other lymphoid cells are weakly positive.  CD164 is expressed on epithelial cells and lymphocytes and is found in the small intestine, colon, lung, thyroid and in colorectal and pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Structure
MOLECULAR FAMILY NAME:  Belongs to the sialomucin family.

CD164 is a single-pass type-1 178 aa glycoprotein.  It is highly glycosylated with a protein core, 16 O-glycosylation sites and 9 N-glycosylation sites.  It contains 2 extracellular mucin domains interrupted by a disulfide-linked non-mucin domain, a transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic domain.  CD164 has 3 potential isoforms containing exons 1-6 having the same transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain endings with aa YHTL which is a targeting motif of the type YXXo that interacts with clathrin adaptor and adaptor-like complexes.   Human and rodent CD164 aa sequences are 100% identical for the transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail, 94%-97% identical for exon 6 encoded peptide and 37%-74% identical for exon 1-5 encoded regions.  All exons contain 8 cysteines in the non-mucin domain and mucin domains 1-11.  This protein is carcinoma-associated. and is rich in serine and threonine.  

MOLECULAR MASS
Cell Type Unreduced Reduced
80 kDa-100 kDa

POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL MODIFICATION

Alternative splicing yields 3 different isoforms.  The predominantly expressed isoform of 179 residues with 2 mucin domains separated by a cysteine-rich domain.  A soluble isoform lacks the membrane insertion sequence and is a disulphide-linked homodimer called multi-glucosylated core protein of 24 kDa (MGC-24).

POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION

CD164 epitopes depend on highly N-linked oligosaccharides and sialic acid residues on O-linked oligosaccharides.  The mature CD164 isoform contains 9 potential N-linked, 16 O-linked glycosylation and a potential GAG attachment site.


Ligands
LIGANDS AND MOLECULES ASSOCIATED WITH CD164

A physiological ligand is unknown but it may be used as an adhesion molecule by malarial parasites.

Function
The function of CD164 is not know but it appears to mediate adhesion of hemopoietic progentiors cells to bone marrow stromal cells.  Antibody ligation of CD164 on primitive hemopoietic progenitor cells reduces recruitment into the cell cycle, suggesting that CD164 signaling suppresses hemopoietic cell proliferation.  CD164 facilitates adhesion of CD34+ and plays a role in regulating hematopoietic cell proliferation.  Most CD164 occurs inside cells.  In epithelial cells and hematopoietic progenitor (KG1B) cell lines, CD164 is primarily located in endocytic compartments with coincidence and the lysosomal marker lamp-1.  In KG1B hematopietic progenitor cell line, CD164 was seen exclusively in large structures as lamp-1.  In a minority of KG1B cells, CD164 was found prominently at the cell surface or in smaller vesicular structures close to the plasma membrane which were positive for the transferring receptor, a marker of early recycling endosomes.  In epithelial cell lines, there are significant numbers of strongly CD164+ structures that are lamp-1 negative.  These structures are identified as early endosomes containing the marker early endosomal antigen (EEA1).  These are not recycling endosomes since they do not contain the transferring receptor.  A small amount of CD164 is localized at the cell surface but the majority is distributed over early and late endocytic vesicles including lysosomes.  The variation seen among KG1B is a shift from almost entirely lysosomal to more prominently early endosomal/surface localization in some cells which indicates that a mechanism exists by which regulates localization of CD164.

BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY: No information.

DISEASE RELEVANCE AND FUNCTION OF CD164 IN INTACT ANIMAL

CD164 is highly expressed on T-cell ALL and may be useful in the analysis of gut tumors.  CD164 appears to be involved in the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum, malaria parasites, to human bone marrow and endothelial origin.

Comments
MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS-
PROTEINS AND DNA ELEMENTS WHICH REGULATE TRANSCRIPTION OF CD164: No information.

SUBSTRATES: No information.

ENZYMES WHICH MODIFY CD164: No information.

Database accession numbers
AnimalPIRSWISSPROTEMGBL/GENBANK
 
HumanEntrezgebe 8763Q04900
Antibodies
N6B6   View Reactivity

Revised June 25, 2008


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