CD15 FUT4 (fucosyltransferase 4), Lewis X ,Le-X,  X-hapten
Molecule TypeAntigen ExpressionMolecular Weight
Min / Max
Non-lineage Restricted Molecule
Carbohydrate
Leukemia cell
Monocyte
Neutrophil
Eosinophil
Myeloid Cell
Granulocyte
Epithelium
Brain
Bone Marrow
Kidney
Lung
Carcinoma Cell
Reed-Sternberg Cell
Langerhans Cell
Breast
Myelomonocytic cell

Expression
CD15 is expressed on monocytes, mature granulocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes and on immature bone marrow cells of myelomoncytic lineage and weakly on peripheral blood T lymphocytes as well as some T cell lines but not on platelets, lymphocytes or erythrocytes.  Expression is on leukemia cells of myelomonocytic origin and occassionally on lymphocytic leukemia cells.  CD15 is on Langerhans cells and a variety of carcinoma cells.  It is also present on embryonic tissues and adenocarcinomas, myeloid leukemias, Reed-Sternberg cells and transient in the brain.  Expression is in various epithelia including secretory epithelium of breast, tubules of kidney, lung, intestinal tract, strocytes and variably by oligodendrocytes and neurons.

Structure
MOLECULAR FAMILY NAME: Belongs to the carbohydrate family.

CD15 is a cluster of cell-surface glycoproteins and glycolipids at the cell surface with terminal trisaccharide structure 3-FAL (Gal-b1-4 [Fuc-a1-3]GlcNAc) which is also referred to as the Lewis x (Le x) antigen.  CD15 is carried by the CD11/CD18 and CD66 glycoproteins.  Epitope can be sialylated and/or sulphated and the core protein or lipid may vary depending on the cell type.  The majority of the CD15 antibodies are IgM, and they do not crossreact with the sialylated form of CD15 or CD15s.

MOLECULAR MASS
Cell Type Unreduced Reduced

POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL MODIFICATION: No information.

POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION: No information.


Ligands
LIGANDS AND MOLECULES ASSOCIATED WITH CD15: No information.

Function
CD15 has been suggested to be the ligand for CD61 selectins but it has been found that sialylated/sulphate CD15 epitopes were much stronger binding partners for selectins.  However CD15 itself may be important for direct-carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions.  CD15 antibodies have been shown to affect various cell activities.  However, it is difficult to distinguish between effects on the CD15 structure itself and effects mediated by proteins which happen to carry the CD15 epitope.  CD15 antibodies can mediate complement activation and may have potential therapeutic value in the killing of CD15-expressing tumor cells.

BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY: No information.

DISEASE RELEVANCE AND FUNCTION OF CD15 IN INTACT ANIMAL

CD15 has an important role in adhesion as leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II (LAD-2) is associated with low levels of CD15 and CD15s and impaired selectin-mediated adhesion.  Helicobacter pylori blood group antigen adhesin (BabA) selectiviely adheres to CD15.  CD15 is used as a granulocyte marker as well as a marker for diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma and in the differentiation of mesothelioma from adenocarcinoma and anaplastic gliomas versus normal glial cells.  It is a prognostic marker for hepatocellular, gastric, colonic and thyroid medullary carcinomas as well as achievement of remission in acute myeloid leukemias and in histopathologic grading of gliomas.  CD15 catalyzes the synthesis of non-sialylated antigen, Lewis x, and it has been detected in humn 5-10 week old embryos suggesting a role in development.



Comments
MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS-
PROTEINS AND DNA ELEMENTS WHICH REGULATE TRANSCRIPTION OF CD15: No information. 

SUBSTRATES: No information.

ENZYMES WHICH MODIFY CD15: No information.


Database accession numbers
AnimalPIRSWISSPROTEMGBL/GENBANK
 
HumanEntrezgene 2526P22083
Antibodies
HI98   View Reactivity

Revised June 25, 2008


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