CD176 TF (Thomson-Friedrenreich Antigen)
Molecule TypeAntigen ExpressionMolecular Weight
Min / Max
Lineage Restricted Molecule
Carbohydrate
Stem Cell
Endothelial Cell
T Cell
B Cell
Erythroblast
Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell
Trophoblast
Breast
Carcinoma Cell
Bone Marrow
Colon
Leukemia cell

Expression
CD176 is expressed on endothelial cells, syncytium and extravillous trophoblast cells and erythrocytes.  It is also expressed on CD34+ hematopoietic precursor cells of the bone marrow and on various hematopoietic cell lines.  Expression is on different types of carcinomas at varying frequencies such as breast 85%, colon 60%-70%, lung 48%, liver 38% and kidney 15%, whereas it is absent or masked on almost all normal adult tissues.  CD176 is expressed on a number of leukemia cell lines derived from AML, carcinoma cells, erythroblastic cells and T and B cell lines.  Helicobacter pylori expresses CD176.

Structure
MOLECULAR FAMILY NAME: Belongs to the carbohydrate chain.

CD176 is a carbohydrate GalĪ²1-3GalNAcĪ± 1-O-R expressed on glycosphingolipids or glycoproteins.  It is known as a histo-blood group related carbohydrate antigen.  It is a pan-carcinoma antigen tumor antigen marker of epithelial tumors mostly carried by mucins.  It is a core-1 structure and is O-glycosidically linked to either threonine or serine residues of its carrier protein.  On epithelial cells, the carrier molecule is in most cases the epithelial mucin, MUC1.  This glycoprotein is expressed on leukocytes only in small amounts and under certain circumstances.  Other carrier molecules are expected in CD176 positive leukemia cells.  A major reactive band was obtained around 120 kDa.  Further bands were detected of 180 kDa and 198 kDa and 1 band of 175 kDa.

MOLECULAR MASS

POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL MODIFICATION: No information.

POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION: No information.


Ligands
LIGANDS AND MOLECULES ASSOCIATED WITH CD176: No information.

Function
CD176 binds to asialoglycoprotein receptors expressed on hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of the liver.  CD176+ carcinoma cells circulating in the blood can be caught by these receptors.
BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY: No information.

DISEASE RELEVANCE AND FUNCTION OF CD176 IN INTACT ANIMAL

CD176 is highly immunogenic as evidenced by the presence of anti-CD176 in the serum of carcinoma patients.  CD176 has been implicated in the induction of metastasis and invasiveness of tumors such as liver tumors and positive leukemia cells.  CD176 specific antibodies have been used for prognostic and therapeutic applications and is a potential useful component of a vaccine against prostate cancer.

Comments
MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS -
PROTEINS AND DNA ELEMENTS WHICH REGULATE TRANSCRIPTION OF CD176: No information.

SUBSTRATES: No information.

ENZYMES WHICH MODIFY CD176: No information.


Database accession numbers
AnimalPIRSWISSPROTEMGBL/GENBANK
 
Antibodies

Revised June 25, 2008


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