|CD231|| TSPAN7(tetraspanin 7), TALLA-1 (T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia associated antigen 1), TM4SF2|
|Molecule Type||Antigen Expression||Molecular Weight|
Min / Max
|Non-lineage Restricted Molecule|
Type 3 glycoprotein, 4 span
|32 / 32|
150 / 150
|CD231 is strongly expressed on T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemic cells, neuroblastoma cells, normal brain neurons, neuronal tissues and on endothelial cells. CD231 is not expressed on B cells or monocytes. Expression is also found in acute myelocytic leukemia cells of some patients.|
|MOLECULAR FAMILY NAME: Belongs to the tetraspanin family.|
CD231 is a multi-pass type-3, 4 span 244 aa glycoprotein. It contains 2 extracellular domains which contains 2 unequal loops, a 16 aa small loop with 1 potential N-glycosylation site and a 101 aa larger loop with 4 glycosylation sites, 4 putative hydrophobic transmembrane domains and a cytoplasmic domain. The 2 extracellular loops are divided by an EC1-proximal transmembrane domain of 19 aa followed by 11 intracellular residues and an EC2-proximal transmembrane domain region of 26 aa. The 16 aa N-terminal cytoplasmic is separated from EC1 by a 24 aa transmembrane domain. The 15 aa C-terminal intracellular cytoplasmic domain contains a tyrosine-based internationalization motif (YxxF) common to all tetraspanins. a 21 aa transmembrane domain separates the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain from EC2.
POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL MODIFICATION: No information.
CD231 has 4 potential N-glycosylation sites in the EC2 domain with 150 aa, 153 aa, 172 aa, and 183 aa respectively. Treatment with N-glycanase reduces CD231 to a Mr of 27 kDa.
| LIGANDS AND MOLECULES ASSOCIATED WITH CD231: No information.|
|Originally CD231 was described as a specific marker for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia specific antigen. Its function is currently unknown but the protein mediates signal transduction events that may play a role in the regulation of cell development, proliferation, growth and motility. This protein may have a role in the control of neurite outgrowth. It is known to complex with integrins.|
BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY: No information.
DISEASE RELEVANCE AND FUNCTION OF CD230 IN INTACT ANIMAL
CD231 is highly expressed and is a specific marker and is a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (TALL). Ricin A-chain conjugates of mAb SN1 effectively kill TALL cells in vitro. The conjugates suppress TALL tumors in nude mice. Defects in CD231 is involved in X-linked mental retardation in which tetraspanin (TM4SF2) is inactivated by a translocation or poinjt mutations. CD231 is also involved in neuropsychiatric diseases such as Huntington's chorea, fragile X syndrome (MRX58) and myotonic dystrophy (XLMR). CD231 is inactivated by an X:2 balanced translocation and the following point mutations in exon 6 at the position 652 leading to a premature STOP G218 to X, and in exon 5 P172H. CD231 can be potentially useful as an anti-tumor agent.
|MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS -|
PROTEINS AND DNA ELEMENTS WHICH REGULATE TRANSCRIPTION OF CD231: No information.
SUBSTRATES: No information.
ENZYMES WHICH MODIFY CD231: No information.
Monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody expressing the internal image of CD231 has been generated.
Database accession numbers
Revised June 25, 2008