CD256 TNFSF13 (tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 13), TALL2, APRIL
Molecule TypeAntigen ExpressionMolecular Weight
Min / Max
Non-lineage Restricted Molecule
Secreted protein
Myeloid Cell
Leukocyte
Monocyte
Macrophage
Colon
Pancreas
Thyroid
Lymphoid Cell
28 / 28

Expression
CD256 is not generally seen as a membrane protein because it is secreted after intracellular proteolysis.  mRNA is expressed on monocytes, macrophages, leukocytes and myeloid cells.  High levels of expression are in transformed cell lines, cancer of colon, some tumors, thyroid, and lymphoid tissues.  Expression is downregulated by mitogens.  Expression is seen on the pancreas and colon but there is weak expression in prostate and peripheral blood leukocytes.  CD256 is a heterotrimer with CD257 and is associated with inflammatory autoimmune disease.

Structure
MOLECULAR FAMILY NAME: Belongs to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily.

CD256 is a single-pass type-2 250 aa secreted glycoprotein.  It contains no signal sequence, a 201 aa extracellular domain which contains 1 N-linked glycosylation site and is secreted as a result of intracellular proteolysis in the Golgi, a 20 aa hydrophobic transmembrane region and a 28 aa N-terminal cytoplasmic domain.  CD256 is predicted to form homotrimers and can form a heterotrimer with CD257.

MOLECULAR MASS

POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL MODIFICATION

Alternative splicing yields 3 different isoforms.

POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION

CD256 has 1 N-linked glycosylation site.

Ligands
LIGANDS AND MOLECULE ASSOCIATED WITH CD256

CD256 binds CD269 and CD267.

Function
CD256, a member of TNF, promotes T, and B cell proliferation by binding to B cell maturation antigen CD269 (BCMA) and CD267 (TACI) receptors.  CD256 has a role in B cell development through interaction with CD269 and may additionally induce apoptosis throught interaction with other TNFRSF members such as CD95 and CD268.  It may have a role in controlling the regulation of tumor cell growth, in the function in the nervous system and acts as a growth factor for glioblastoma cell lines.  It may be involved in monocyte/macrophage mediated immunological processes. 

BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY: No information.

DISEASE RELEVANCE AND FUNCTION OF CD256 IN INTACT ANIMAL

It has been proposed that CD256 regulates B-cell as well as T-cell function and has pro-and anti-inflammatory effects in rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases.  CD256 may have a role in controlling the regulation of tumor cell growth, in the function in the nervous system and acts as a growth factor for glioblastoma cell lines.  



Comments
MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS-
PROTEINS AND DNA ELEMENTS WHICH REGULATE TRANSCRIPTION OF CD256: No information.

SUBSTRATES: No information.

ENZYMES WHICH MODIFY CD256: No information.

ADDITIONAL INSIGHTS

For further information see Roschke, V. et al (2002) J. Immunol. 169: 4314-4321.


Database accession numbers
AnimalPIRSWISSPROTEMGBL/GENBANK
 
HumanEntrezgene 8741O75888
Antibodies

Revised June 25, 2008


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