CD271 NGFR (nerve growth factor receptor), TNFRSF16 (TNRF superfamily member 16), NTR, LNGFR
Molecule TypeAntigen ExpressionMolecular Weight
Min / Max
Non-lineage Restricted Molecule
Type 1 glycoprotein
Stromal Cell
Neuron
Dendritic Cell
Monocyte
Bone Marrow
Mesenchymal Cell
B Cell
Schwann Cell
Melanocyte
75 / 75

Expression
CD271 is expressed on neurons, stromal cells, follicular dendritic cells, bone marrow mesenchymal cells, Schwann cells, monocytes, melanocytes and B cells.

Structure
MOLECULAR FAMILY NAME: Belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family.

CD271 is a single-pass type-1 399 aa glycoprotein.  It contains a 28 aa signal sequence, a 222 aa extracellular domain which contain 4 TNFR-Cys repeats, a 52 aa serine/threonine-rich domain and has a N-linked glycosylation site, a 22 aa transmembrane domain and an 155 aa cytoplasmic domain which contains a death domain.
  
MOLECULAR MASS

POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL MODIFICATION:

CD271 has a short isoform that retains only the N-terminal TNFR-Cys repeat and does not bind neurotrophin.  This isoform is expressed at greatly reduced levels compared with the long isoform.

POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION

CD271 is N- and O-glycosylated and O-linked glycoans.  Phosphorylation is on serine residues.

Ligands
LIGANDS AND MOLECULE ASSOCIATED WITH CD271

CD271 binds all neuotrophins.

Function
CD271 is a low affinity neurotrophin receptor for nerve growth factor CD259 (NGF).   In addition to NGF, NGFR binds other neurotrophins including brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 and neurotrophin-4.  CD271 has diverse and opposing functions due to its capacity to bind a variety of extracellular and associates intracellulary with many different signaling molecules.  CD271 associates with tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptors to form receptor complexes with high affinity for neurotrophins.  Interaction of this receptor with tyrosine kinase receptor A (TRKA), the high affinity NGF receptor, potentiates TRKA signaling.  Conformational changes imposed by interaction with CD271 modulate the affinity and specificity of Trk receptors for neurotrophins.  Tkr restricts TrkA signaling to CD259 even though TrkA retain the ability to also bind neurothrophin 3.  TrkA expressing sensory and sympathetic neurons of CD271-/- mice are impaired in their ability to responds to limiting CD259 concentrations.  The best characterized role of the NGFR is that it mediates cell survival as well as cell death of neural cells.  Mice lacking both CD271 isoforms have a dramatic loss of sensory neurons and Schwann cells and have defective development of major blood vessels compared with mice deficient in the long isoform only.  CD271-/- mice have significantly increased numbers of cholinergic neurons, indicating CD271 promotes apoptosis of cholinergic neurons during development.  β-amyloid and aggregated prion protein have both been shown to induce neuronal cell death in vitro and have recently been found to be ligands of CD271.

BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY: No information.

DISEASE RELEVANCE AND FUNCTION OF CD271 IN INTACT ANIMAL

CD271 plays a role in cell survival and migration in the vascular system, in tumors such as breast cancer, and in the immune system as well as neurite outgrowth, synaptic transmission and plasticity.  Analysis of the expression of CD271 and NGF may be useful in assessing the prognosis of patients with invasive ductal carcinoma.  Antibodies to CD271 may play a role in the identification of benign and malignant soft tissue lesions. 


Comments
MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS-
PROTEINS AND DNA ELEMENTS WHICH REGULATE TRANSCRIPTION OF CD271: No information.

SUBSTRATES: No information.

ENZYMES WHICH MODIFY CD271: No information.

ADDITIONAL INSIGHTS

For further information see Thompson,S.J.; et al (1989) Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 92: 415-423.


Database accession numbers
AnimalPIRSWISSPROTEMGBL/GENBANK
 
HumanEntrezgene 4804P08138
Antibodies

Revised June 25, 2008


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