CD281 TLR1 (Toll-like receptor 1), TIL
Molecule TypeAntigen ExpressionMolecular Weight
Min / Max
Non-lineage Restricted Molecule
Type 1 glycoprotein
Neutrophil
Monocyte
Macrophage
Dendritic Cell
Keratinocyte
Ovary
Spleen
Thymus
Small intestine
Peripheral blood
Leukocyte
90 / 90

Expression
CD281 is expressed on dendritic cells, keratinocytes, macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils.  Expression is at low levels on PBMC.  Expression is ubiquitous and at a higher levels than other TIR genes.   It is highly expressed level in spleen, ovary, peripheral blood leukocytes, thymus, small intestine and in breast milk.

Structure
MOLECULAR FAMILY NAME: Belongs to the Toll-like receptor family.

CD281 is a single-pass type-1 762 aa glycoprotein.  It contains a 24 aa signal sequence, a 556 aa extracellular domain which contains 8 leucine-rich repeats (LLR) capped at each end by a N- and C-terminal motifs and has 6 potential N-glycosylation sites, a 21 aa transmembrane domain and an 185 aa cytoplasmic domain containing a Toll/ IL-1R (TIR) domain.  The LLR are predicted to have a "horseshoe-like" structure and form the liogand binding domain.  CD281 forms a heterodimer with CD282 (TLR2).                
 
MOLECULAR MASS

POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL MODIFICATION: No information.

POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION: No information. 

Ligands
LIGANDS AND MOLECULAR ASSOCIATED WITH CD281

CD281 associates with CD282 (TLR2), B. burgdorferi outer surface protein A lipoprotein, mycobacterial 10kDa lipoprotein and triacylated lipopeptides.

Function
CD281 is a Toll-like receptor and plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity by recognizing specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on pathogens that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity.  PAMP binding of the CD281/CD282 complex triggers intracellular MyD88 dependent signaling pathways and nuclear translocation of NF-κB , which ultimately leads to cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response and to production of pro-inflammatory cytokines to stimulate host defenses and initiate an acquired immune response.  It binds via the extracellular domain and MyD88 binds via their respective TIR domains.  CD281 interacts with CD282 (TLR2) to recognize the lipid configuration of native mycobacterial lipoproteins.  TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophilia to humans and share structural and functional similarities.  There is participation in the innate immune response to microbial agents.  Coexpression of both CD282 and CD282 receptors is required for recognition of aralipoarabinomannam and studies with CD281 and CD282 knockout mice have shown that these receptors cooperate in the recognition of Borrelia burgdorferi outer-surface protein lipoprotein, mycobacterial 10kDa lipoprotein and triacylated lipopeptides

BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY: No information.

DISEASE RELEVANCE AND FUNCTION OF CD281 IN INTACT ANIMAL: No information.
 


Comments
MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS-
PROTEINS AND DNA ELEMENTS WHICH REGULATE TRANSCRIPTION OF CD281: No information.

SUBSTRATES: No information.

ENZYMES WHICH MODIFY CD281: No information.

ADDITIONAL INSIGHTS

For further information see Takeuchi, O. et al (2002) J. Immunol. 169: 10-14.


Database accession numbers
AnimalPIRSWISSPROTEMGBL/GENBANK
 
HumanEntrezgene 7096Q15399
Antibodies

Revised June 25, 2008


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