CD290 

TLR10 (Toll-like receptor 10)

Molecule TypeAntigen ExpressionMolecular Weight
Min / Max
Non-lineage Restricted Molecule
Type 1 glycoprotein
B Cell
Spleen
Thymus
Lymph Node
Dendritic Cell
Langerhans Cell
Tonsil
Promyelocyte
91 / 91
100 / 100

Expression
CD290 expression is by normal and neoplasic B cells.  Pre-B cells express CD290 weakly and the expression level increases with maturation.  The strongest expression occurs in activated B cells.  Plasmacytoid cells dendritic cells and CD1a+ dendritic cells derived from C D34+ precursors resembling Langerhans cells express CD290.  Expression is detected in lung but is predominantly in immune lymphoid cell-rich tissues including spleen, lymph node, thymus, tonsil.  CD290 is expressed on mRNA tissues and promyelocytic HL-60 cells,   

Structure
MOLECULAR FAMILY NAME:  Belongs to the Toll-like receptor family.

CD290 is a single pass type-1 792 aa glycoprotein.  It contains a 19 aa signal sequemce, a 557 aa extracellular domain which contains 12 leucine-rich repeats (LRR) capped at each end by N- and C-terminal motifs and also has 9 potential N-glycosylation sites, a 21 aa transmembrane domain and 214 aa intracellular cytoplasmic domain which contains an 147 aa Toll/IL-1R domain which interacts with the adaptor molecule myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (Myd88).  The LRRs form a "horseshoe" shaped structure which is the ligand binding domain.  CD290 is highly polymorphic.
 
MOLECULAR MASS

POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL MODIFICATION

Multiple alternatively spiced transcript isoforms have been found.

POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION

CD290 has 9 potential N-glycosylation sites.

Ligands
LIGANDS AND MOLECULE ASSOCIATED WITH CD290: No information.

Function
CD290, TLR10, is most closely related to CD281 (TLR1) and CD286 (TLR6).  CD290 is a Toll-like receptor selectively expressed by B lymphocytes.  CD290 plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immune responses to microbial agents.  They are highly conserved from Drosophilia to humans and share structural and functional similarities.  They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity. TIR domains act via MyD88 and TRAF6 leading to NF-κB activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response.  Study of CD290 function has been hampered by the lack of CD290 expression in mice due to insertion of retroviral DNA in the CD290 gene.  Recently a complete CD290 sequence was detected in the rat genome and low level CD290 expression found in the rat plasmacytoid dendritic cells.  Therefore it is possible that further study of CD290 function may be continued using a rat model.

BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY: No information.

DISEASE RELEVANCE AND FUNCTION OF CD290 IN INTACT ANIMAL

A recent study found a possible link between CD290 polymorphisms and asthma, which suggests a role in the lung.

Comments
MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS-
PROTEINS AND DNA ELEMENTS WHICH REGULATE TRANSCRIPTION OF CD290: No information.

SUBSTRATES: No information.

ENZYMES WHICH MODIFY CD290: No information.

Database accession numbers
AnimalPIRSWISSPROTEMGBL/GENBANK
 
HumanEntrezgene81793Q9BXR5
Antibodies

Revised June 25, 2008


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