CD349 FZD9 (frizzed homolog 9), FzE6, Fz-9, hFz9,Fz-9, FZD3, Frizzed-9
Molecule TypeAntigen ExpressionMolecular Weight
Min / Max
Non-lineage Restricted Molecule
Type 3 glycoprotein, 7 span
Brain
Kidney
Skeletal muscle
Placenta
Bone Marrow
Testis
Stem Cell
65 / 65

Expression
CD349 is predominantely expressed in adult and fetal brain, testis, eye, skeletal muscle and kidney.  There is expression by parenchymatic cells around large vessels of the placenta, by the CFU-F forming mesenchymal stem cells of bone marrow and placenta by neural precursor cells.  There is moderate expression in the pancreas, thyroid, adrenal cortex, small instestine and stomach. 

Structure
MOLECULAR FAMILY NAME: Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor, Frizzed family.

CD349 is a multi-pass type-3 569 aa glycoprotein.  It contains a 207 aa extracellular N-terminus domain which contains a cysteine-rich ligand-binding site, 7 transmembrane-spanning domains and a 62 aa cytoplasmic domain which contains a Lys-Thr-X-X-X-Trp motif.  This motif is the binding site for PDZ-damain containing proteins and is essential for activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.  Most of the frizzled receptors are coupled to the β-catenin canonial signaling pathway, which leads to the activation of dishevelled proteins, inhibition of GSK-3 kinase, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and activation of Wnt target genes.  A second pathway involving PKC and calcium fluxes has been seen for some family members, but it is not yet clear if it represents a distinct pathway or if it can be integrated in the canonical pathway, as PKC seems to be required for Wnt-mediated inactivation of GSK-3 kinase.  Both pathways seem to involve interactions with G-proteins.  Studies suggest that CD349 may form heterodimers. 

MOLECULAR MASS

POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL MODIFICATION: No information.

POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION: No information.

Ligands
LIGANDS AND MOLECULES ASSOCIATED WITH CD349

The CD349 domain is involved in binding with Wnt proteins including Wnt-2 and Wnt-7a.

Function

CD349 is a marker for bone marrow and placenta mesenchymatic stem cells (MSC).  CD349 is essential for the regulation of tissue and cell polarity, embryonic development, regulation of proliferation and many other processes in developing and adult organisms.  CD349 participates in the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway (canonical Wnt signaling) and is involved in coupling to members of the G proteins.  These interactions with G-proteins may be involved in transduction and intercellular transmission of information during tissue morphogenesis and/or in differentiated tissues. 

BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY: No information.

DISEASE RELEVANCE AND FUNCTION OF CD349 IN INTACT ANIMAL

CD349 is an important factor in the development of the nervous system and is critical for hippocampal development.  Heterozygous deletion of the CD349 gene may contribute to the Williams syndrome phenotype.  Knockout mice display aberrant B-cell development and abnormal plasma cell homeostasis.  CD349 mice have pronounced splenomegaly, thymic atrophy and lymphadenopathy with age and accumulation of plasma cells in lymph nodes. 



Comments
MOLECULAR INTERACTION-
PROTEINS AND DNA ELEMENTS WHICH REGULATE TRANSCRIPTION OF CD349: No information.

SUBSTRATES: No information.

ENZYMES WHICH MODIFY CD349: No information.

Database accession numbers
AnimalPIRSWISSPROTEMGBL/GENBANK
 
HumanEntrezgene 8326O00144
Antibodies

Revised June 25, 2008


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