C3X1 CX3CR1 (chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1)
Molecule TypeAntigen ExpressionMolecular Weight
Min / Max
Non-lineage Restricted Molecule
Unknown
Brain
Peripheral blood
Spleen
Leukocyte
Myeloid Cell

Expression
C3X1 is expressed in lymphoid and neural tissues.  Northern blot analysis showed expression is high in brain, peripheral blood leukocytes, spleen and myeloid cells but no expression lymphoid cell lines.

Structure
MOLECULAR FAMILY NAME: Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.

C3X1 is a multi pass glycoprotein.  It contains an extracellular domain, a 20 aa 7 putative transmembrane domains and a cytoplasmic domain.

MOLECULAR MASS

POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL MODIFICATION

Alternative splicing yields 3 different isoforms. 

POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION: No information.

Ligands
 LIGANDS AND MOLECULES ASSOCIATED WITH C3X1: No information.

Function
Fractalkine (CX3CR1) with a C3X1 motif chemokine atop a mucin stalk, induces both adhesion and migration of leukocytes.  The receptor, CX3CL1, requires pertussis toxin sensitive G protein signaling to induce migration but not to support adhesion which occurs without other adhesion molecules but requires the architecture of a chemokine domain atop the mucin stalk.  NK cells express CX3CR1 and respond to fractalkine in both migration and adhesion.  It has been concluded that fractalkine and CX3CR1 represents new type of leukocyte trafficking regulators, performing both adhesive and chemotactic functions.

BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY: No information.

DISEASE RELEVANCE AND FUNCTION OF C3X1 IN INTACT ANIMAL

Variations in C3X1 are associated with rapid progression of AIDS.  Increased susceptibility to HIV infection and rapid progression to AIDS are associaed with the Ile-249/Met-280 haplotype.  C3X1 acts as a coreceptor with CD4 for HIV-1 virus envelope protein (in vitro).   Isoform 2 and isoform 3 seem to be more potent HIV coreceptors than isoform 1.


Comments
MOLECULAR INTERACTION-
PROTEINS AND DNA ELEMENTS WHICH REGULATE TRANSCRIPTION OF C3X1: No information.

SUBSTRATES: No information.

ENZYMES WHICH MODIFY C3X1: No information.

Database accession numbers
AnimalPIRSWISSPROTEMGBL/GENBANK
 
HumanEntrezgene 1524P49238
Antibodies

Revised June 25, 2008


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