CXADR CXADR (coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor)
Molecule TypeAntigen ExpressionMolecular Weight
Min / Max
Non-lineage Restricted Molecule
Type 1 glycoprotein
Endothelial Cell
Heart
Brain
Small intestine
Testis
Prostate
Pancreas
Blood vessel
Skeletal muscle
39 / 39

Expression
CXADR expression in pancreas, brain, heart, small intestine, testis, prostate and at a lower level in liver and lung.  Isoform 5 is ubiquitoulsy expressed and isoform 3 is expressed in heart, lung and pancreas.  Expression is not found in kidney, placenta, peripheral blood leukocytesm thymus and spleen.  In skeletal muscle, isoform 1 is found at the neuromuscular junction and isoform 2 is found in blood vessels.  In cardiac muscle, isoform 1 and isoform 2 are found at intercalated disks.  In heart expressed in subendothelial layers of the vessel wall but not in the luminal endothelial surface.  Expression is elevated in hearts with dilated cardiomyopathy.

Structure
MOLECULAR FAMILY NAME: Belongs to the immunoglobulin gene family.

CXADR is a single-pass type-1 365 aa glycoprotein.  It contains a signal sequence, an extracellular domain which contains 2 Ig-like C2-type domains which probably mediates homodimerization and interaction with JAML, 2 disulfide-bonded loops resembling the characteristic Ig-like V-type and C2-type domains,  2 N-linked glycosylation sites, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasic domain.  CXADR is a protein for group B coxsackieviruses and a subgroup C adenoviruses.

MOLECULAR MASS

POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL MODIFICATION

Alternative splicing yields 5 different isoforms.  Isoforms 1 and 2 are cell membranes and isoforms 3, 4 and 5 are secreted proteins.

POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION

CXADR has 2 N-linked glycosylation sites.

Ligands
LIGANDS AND MOLECULES ASSOCIATED WITH CXADR: No information.

Function
CXADR is a component of the epithelial apical junction complex that is essential for tight junction integrity.  It is proposed to function as a homophilic cell adhesion molecule and is probably involved in transepithelial migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) through adhesive interactions with AMICA1/JAML located in the plasma membrane of PMN.  CXADR is the receptor for group B coxsackieviruses and subgroup C of adenoviruses and the susceptibilty to infection is correlated to its level of expression and avilability at the plasma membrane of cells.

BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY: No information.

DISEASE RELEVANCE AND FUNCTION OF CXADR IN INTACT ANIMAL

It is thought that coxsackie virus B and the adenovirus receptor is involved in myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy which are common causes of morbidity and mortality in children.

Comments
MOLECULAR INTERACTION-
PROTEINS AND DNA ELEMENTS WHICH REGULATE TRANSCRIPTION OF CXADR: No information.

SUBSTRATES; No information.

ENZYMES WHICH MODIFY: No information. 

Database accession numbers
AnimalPIRSWISSPROTEMGBL/GENBANK
 
HumanEntrezgene 1525P78310
Antibodies

Revised June 25, 2008


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