CD69 AIM(activation inducer molecule), EA 1, VEA (very early activation[mouse]), MLR-3
Molecule TypeAntigen ExpressionMolecular Weight
Min / Max
Non-lineage Restricted Molecule
Type 2 glycoprotein
Hematopoietic Cell
Lymphocyte
Neutrophil
Eosinophil
Platelet
Langerhans Cell
Thymocyte
T Cell
B Cell
NK Cell
Lymph Node
Germinal Center
Leukocyte
60 / 60

Expression
CD69 is widely expressed on hematopoietic cells including lymphocytes, leukocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, platelets and epidermal Langerhans cells.  It is constitutively expressed by a subset of medullary mature thymocytes, mantle B cells and certain CD4+ T cells in the germinal centers of normal lymph nodes.  It is not expressed on resting lymphocytes but is rapidly induced  within 2 hours upon activation of B and T and NK cells.  CD69 is expressed on CD4+ and CD8+ thymocytes, germinal center T cells, and T cells in regions of inflammation consistent with it being a marker of  T cell activation.


Structure
MOLECULAR FAMILY NAME:  Belongs to the C-type lectin family. 

CD69 is a single-pass type-2 199 aa disulfide-linked homodimeric 2 glycoprotein.  It contains an extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic domain which contains one N-phosphorylation site for serine/threonine kinases and is constitutively phosphorylated.  Other members of this family are  CD23, CD72, CD94 and CD161.  The human and mouse genes for CD69 are encoded within the NK gene complex on chromosomes 12 and 6, respectively.

MOLECULAR MASS
Cell Type Unreduced Reduced Comment
NK cells 60 kDa 28/32 kDa
Activated T lymphocytes 60 kDa 27/33 kDa

POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL MODIFICATION

The CD69 mRNA is post-transcriptionally regulated by rapid degradation sequences, AU-rich motifs.

POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION

There is a potential N-glycosylation site at position 166.  It is a constitutively phosphorylated glycoprotein, Ser/Thr.

Ligands
LIGANDS AND MOLECULES ASSOCIATED WITH CD69: No information.



Function
CD69 is not expressed on resting peripheral blood lymphocytes but is amongst the earliest antigens to appear upon activation and proliferation of lymphocytes, appearing within 2 hours after stimulation.  Expression requires mRNA synthesis, and is very transient, as the result of rapid degradation of the mRNA which has a functional AU-rich motif in the 3' untranslated region.  Anti-CD69 mAbs can activate T and B cells, NK cells, platelets and neutrophils, suggesting that it may function as a signal transducing receptor.  Signal-transmitting receptors are in different cells.  CD69 is involved in the early events of lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet activation.  CD69 contributes to T cell activation including Ca2+ influx, synthesis of different cytokines and their receptors, and the induction of the expression of c-myc and c-fos proto-oncogenes. CD69 contributes to platelet activation including Ca2+ influx, hydrolysis of arachidonic acid and aggregation.  It has also functional role in redirected lysis mediated by activated NK cells and may be a marker of early T cell activation.  CD69 expression is induced during positive selection in thymocytes. 

BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY: No information.

DISEASE RELEVANCE OF AND FUNCTION OF CD69 IN INTACT ANIMAL

CD69 is highly expressed on T cells from inflammatory infiltrates of several human diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, viral hepatitis, and autoimmune thyroid disorders.

Comments
MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS -
PROTEINS AND DNA ELEMENTS WHICH REGULATE TRANSCRIPTION OF CD69
Molecule Comment
NF-kB Consensus sequence in promoter and NF-kB regulates TNF -mediated    induction of CD69 gene expression
AP-1 Consensus sequence in promoter
NFAT Consensus sequence in promoter
NF-kB Consensus sequence in promoter

SUBSTRATES: No information.

ENZYMES WHICH MODIFY CD69: No information.


Database accession numbers
AnimalPIRSWISSPROTEMGBL/GENBANK
 
HumanEntrezgene 969Q07108
MouseP37217L23638
Antibodies
CH/4   View Reactivity
FN50   View Reactivity
L78   View Reactivity
TP1.55.3   View Reactivity

Revised June 25, 2008


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